Table 1—

Test scores at age 11 years and the risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 16 and 42 years of age

Subjects without type 2 diabetesSubjects with type 2 diabetesUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Cohort members without a diagnosis of diabetes by age 16 years*
    n9,11369
    General ability45 ± 1637 ± 170.63 (0.49–0.79)0.67 (0.51–0.87)
    Reading comprehension17 ± 613 ± 60.56 (0.44–0.72)0.58 (0.44–0.76)
Cohort members without a diagnosis of diabetes by age 16 years and with information on BMI at age 7 years
    n7,70159
    General ability45 ± 1539 ± 180.66 (0.51–0.85)0.70 (0.53–0.93)
    Reading comprehension17 ± 613 ± 70.58 (0.45–0.76)0.60 (0.44–0.80)
Cohort members without a diagnosis of diabetes by age 33 years*
    n7,87848
    General ability45 ± 1537 ± 180.61 (0.46–0.81)0.68 (0.50–0.93)
    Reading comprehension17 ± 614 ± 70.58 (0.43–0.78)0.63 (0.45–0.86)
  • Data are means ± SD and OR (95% CI). ORs are calculated using logistic regression and estimate the risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes for each SD change in test score.

  • *

    * OR (95% CI) values adjusted for sex, mental retardation (mild or severe), disability, family social class at birth (seven categories), birth weight in ounces, gestational age (<35, 35–36, 37–42, and >42 weeks and gestational age unavailable), ethnic origin (white British, Irish, white other, white and black Caribbean, white and black African, white and Asian, other mixed race, Indian, other Asian, Caribbean, African, other black, other ethnic group), smoking during pregnancy, age mother left school, and mother's age at delivery.

  • OR (95% CI) values adjusted for characteristics listed above* and also for BMI at age 7 years.