Table 2—

Relative risk (RR) (95% CI) for the associations of reduced HRV (max-min), prolonged QTc interval, QTD, cardiovascular risk factors, and demographic variables with 9-year all-cause mortality in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals

Nondiabetic group
Diabetic group
RR (95% CI)PRR (95% CI)P
HRV*
    Max-min (1st quartile)0.93 (0.65–1.34)0.7001.74 (0.95–3.18)0.075
    Male sex2.59 (1.77–3.78)0.0001.79 (0.91–3.52)0.089
    Age1.11 (1.08–1.15)0.0001.05 (0.99–1.12)0.088
    CVD1.64 (0.98–2.74)0.0601.69 (0.73–3.89)0.218
    High alcohol intake1.33 (0.93–1.89)0.1170.66 (0.19–2.23)0.499
    Use of β-blockers1.01 (0.63–1.63)0.9690.79 (0.32–1.95)0.603
    Regular smokers2.02 (1.40–2.91)0.0001.95 (0.95–3.99)0.067
    Physically active0.60 (0.40–0.88)0.0100.21 (0.06–0.69)0.010
    Hypertension1.60 (1.15–2.22)0.0050.85 (0.43–1.69)0.645
    Obesity0.97 (0.92–1.01)0.1640.97 (0.88–1.05)0.434
    Dyslipidemia0.99 (0.90–1.08)0.7621.13 (1.00–1.27)0.043
Prolonged QTc interval
    QTc (>440 ms [ref. 17])2.02 (1.29–3.17)0.0023.00 (1.34–6.71)0.007
    Male sex2.60 (1.78–3.80)0.0002.16 (1.05–4.42)0.036
    Age1.12 (1.08–1.15)0.0001.07 (1.01–1.13)0.033
    CVD1.59 (0.95–2.66)0.0761.18 (0.47–2.93)0.728
    High alcohol intake1.35 (0.94–1.92)0.1030.52 (0.15–1.79)0.299
    Use of β-blockers1.08 (0.67–1.73)0.7651.04 (0.40–2.67)0.936
    Regular smokers1.97 (1.37–2.85)0.0001.89 (0.91–3.91)0.087
    Physically active0.62 (0.42–0.92)0.0180.24 (0.07–0.80)0.020
    Hypertension1.55 (1.11–2.16)0.0110.87 (0.44–1.70)0.684
    Obesity0.96 (0.92–1.01)0.1100.96 (0.88–1.05)0.380
    Dyslipidemia0.97 (0.89–1.06)0.4801.12 (0.99–1.28)0.081
QTD
    QTD (>60 ms)0.98 (0.60–1.60)0.9390.42 (0.06–3.16)0.402
    Male sex2.32 (1.56–3.45)0.0001.67 (0.82–3.40)0.157
    Age1.11 (1.08–1.15)0.0001.07 (1.00–1.14)0.034
    CVD0.97 (0.48–1.95)0.9341.56 (0.56–4.35)0.400
    High alcohol intake1.54 (1.07–2.23)0.0210.71 (0.21–2.46)0.592
    Use of β-blockers1.12 (0.68–1.86)0.6490.77 (0.27–2.17)0.615
    Regular smokers2.13 (1.46–3.11)0.0001.52 (0.62–3.74)0.360
    Physically active0.64 (0.43–0.97)0.0360.16 (0.04–0.66)0.012
    Hypertension1.58 (1.10–2.26)0.0121.01 (0.48–2.16)0.973
    Obesity0.97 (0.92–1.01)0.1520.95 (0.86–1.06)0.368
    Dyslipidemia1.02 (0.93–1.12)0.6481.11 (0.97–1.27)0.140
  • *

    * HRV: nondiabetic group, n = 1,513; nondiabetic group, n = 152.

  • Prolonged QTc interval: nondiabetic group, n = 1,496; diabetic group, n = 151.

  • QTD: nondiabetic group, n = 1,433; diabetic group, n = 140.