Table 1—

Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics of the 572 patients with type 1 diabetes with and without diabetic nephropathy

Type 1 diabetic patients with overt diabetic nephropathyPatients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (control)P
n397175
Sex (men/women)243/154104/710.38
Age (years)42.1 ± 10.542.7 ± 9.70.55
Duration of diabetes (years)28.3 ± 8.927.7 ± 8.30.41
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 ± 3.423.7 ± 2.50.03
A1C (%)9.4 ± 1.58.5 ± 1.1<0.001
Urinary albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)*609 (10–14,545)8 (1–30)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)145 ± 22132 ± 18<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 1376 ± 10<0.001
GFR (ml/min per 1.73m2)76 ± 3493 ± 15<0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)102 (52–684)76 (53–116)<0.001
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.24.8 ± 1.0<0.001
Retinopathy (nil/simplex/proliferative)6/129/26261/95/19<0.001
Previous CVD10.5%1.7%<0.001
AHT75%10%<0.001
ADMA (μmol/l)0.46 ± 0.080.40 ± 0.06<0.001
SDMA (μmol/l)0.59 (0.28–4.04)0.41 (0.28–0.84)<0.001
  • Data are n, means ± SD, or median (range).

  • *

    * Some patients with previously persistent macroalbuminuria at the time of investigation had a urinary albumin excretion rate <300 mg/24 h due to ongoing antihypertensive therapy.

  • Presence of previous CVD is defined as either stroke or myocardial infarction.

  • In 2002 the recommendations at SDC were extended to include statins and low-dose aspirin for all patients with diabetic nephropathy.