Table 3—

Associations with hospitalization rates and charges

Educational variable (each educational variable was modeled separately)Unadjusted models
Adjusted models*
Hospitalizations per 100 person-yearsHospital charges
Hospitalizations per 100 person-years
Hospital charges
Parameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P value
Any educational visit−18.84 (−23.21 to −14.46)<0.001−$21,710 (−$26,974 to −$16,446)<0.001−9.18 (−13.33 to −5.02)<0.001−$11,571 (−$16,765 to −$6,377)<0.001
Any nutritionist visit−22.49 (−27.66 to −17.33)<0.001−$30,730 (−$36,943 to −$24,517)<0.001−10.72 (−15.58 to −5.86)<0.001−$13,872 (−$19,945 to −$7,799)<0.001
Any diabetes class−10.51 (−16.93 to 4.09)0.001−$5,778 (−$13,505 to $1,949)0.14−5.49 (−11.47 to 0.49)0.07−$6,913 (−$14,386 to $559)0.07
Number of educational visits (per visit)−2.26 (−3.09 to −1.43)<0.001−$2,545 (−$3,544 to −$1,546)<0.001−1.12 (−1.90 to −0.33)0.01−$1,793 (−$2,770 to −$817)<0.001
Number of nutritionist visits (per visit)−9.46 (−12.11 to −6.82)<0.001−$13,043 (−$16,222 to −$9,864)<0.001−4.70 (−7.16 to −2.23)<0.001−$6,503 (−$9,586 to −$3,421)<0.001
Number of diabetes classes (per class)−1.75 (−2.73 to −0.77)<0.001−$1,467 (−$2,646 to −$289)0.01−0.82 (−1.71 to 0.10)0.08−$1,396 (−$2,538 to −$254)0.02
  • *

    * Adjusted for demographic variables and baseline hospitalizations, heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, lower-extremity ulcers, neuropathy, eye disease, hypertension, and number of other primary care visits.

  • Include dietitian visits, diabetes classes, and health education visits.