Table 1—

Proposed patient-centered measures: definitions and example items

Measurement areaDefinition/example referencesSample items
Health behaviorsSelf-management actions needed to control diabetes including healthy eating, medication taking, regular physical activity, not smoking, etc. (12).“How many regular sodas or glasses of sweet tea do you drink each day?” “How many days in the past week did you test your blood sugar?”
Quality of lifeBoth diabetes-specific and general evaluations of one's health status. Measures refer to both emotional and physical health (7,10).“How much of a problem for you is feeling overwhelmed by the demands of living with diabetes?” “Compared to others my age and sex, my health is (good, fair, poor, etc.).”
Self-management goal(s)Collaboratively set, specific goals or action plans for diabetes management (11,13).“When I received care for my diabetes, I was … helped to set specific goals to improve my eating and exercise; helped to make a treatment plan that I could do in my daily life.”
Patient-centered careKey aspects include patient engagement in care, shared decision making, and consideration of patient preferences, background, and environment (4,13).“When I received care for my diabetes, I was asked for my ideas when we made a treatment plan.”