Table 3

Multivariable analysis of heart rate variability outcomes and ACR tertiles

HRV parameterFactor*β (95% CI)P value
HRUpper ACR tertile+2.5 (0.2–4.8)0.03
Age−1.2 (−1.9 to −0.4)<0.01
HbA1c1.9 (1.0–2.8)<0.001
SDNNUpper ACR tertile−6.6 (−12.7 to −0.4)0.04
HbA1c−3.8 (−6.2 to −1.4)<0.01
RMSSDUpper ACR tertile−9.5 (−18.2 to −0.8)0.03
Age−3.1 (−6.0 to −0.3)0.03
HbA1c−3.9 (−7.2 to −0.5)0.02
  • HR, heart rate; HRV, heart rate variability.

  • * Diabetes duration, BMI SDS, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure SDS were not significant explanatory variables in the above models.

  • + Reference group is lower tertiles.