Table 1—

Distribution of A1C in relation to age, BMI, duration of diabetes, and insulin regimen for boys and girls, respectively, adjusted by center effect

A1C <7.0%A1C 7.0–7.9%A1C 8.0–9.9%A1C ≥10%
n (%)768 (35%)760 (35%)545 (25%)87 (4%)
Age (years)12.5 ± 0.1§13.4 ± 0.1*§14.3 ± 0.2*16.5 ± 0.4*§
Sex (male/female)55/4552/4850/5041/59
Age- and sex-adjusted BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (%)18212122
Age- and sex-adjusted BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (%)234*4
Duration of diabetes (years)5.0 ± 0.1§5.9 ± 0.16.9 ± 0.2*7.9 ± 0.4
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)0.89 ± 0.01§0.99 ± 0.01*§1.09 ± 0.01*1.25 ± 0.03*§
Injection times per day4.3 ± 0.03§4.4 ± 0.03*#4.5 ± 0.03*4.6 ± 0.07*
Proportion using fast-acting insulin49 ± 0.650 ± 0.650 ± 0.753 ± 1.7
  • Data are means ± SEM unless otherwise indicated. P values refer to difference of a category from each of the other categories of A1C and are adjusted for multiple comparisons.

  • *

    * P < 0.01 vs. A1C <7.0%,

  • P < 0.01 vs. A1C 7.0–7.9%,

  • P < 0.05 vs. A1C 7.0–7.9%,

  • §

    § P < 0.01 vs. A1C 8.0–9.9%,

  • #

    # P < 0.05 vs. A1C 8.0–9.9%, and

  • P < 0.01 vs. A1C ≥10.0%.