Table 2—

Annual number of singleton births, mean maternal age, and prevalence of GDM per 100 births by maternal age and race/ethnicity among 199,298 births screened for GDM, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 1999–2005

1999200020012002200320042005*Ptrend
No. births30,57629,90328,47428,44328,30826,81526,779
Mean age (years)28.128.428.628.829.029.129.2
No. with GDM2,1712,2052,2192,3292,0912,0282,078
    13–19 years1.8 (0.27)1.4 (0.25)2.0 (0.32)1.3 (0.27)1.4 (0.29)2.2 (0.36)1.7 (0.31)0.7539
    20–24 years3.3 (0.23)3.4 (0.24)4.3 (0.27)3.7 (0.26)3.3 (0.25)3.3 (0.27)3.7 (0.29)0.6778
    25–29 years6.0 (0.25)6.5 (0.26)6.4 (0.27)6.8 (0.27)5.6 (0.25)6.2 (0.27)6.1 (0.27)0.4686
    30–34 years8.9 (0.32)9.1 (0.32)9.5 (0.34)10.2 (0.34)9.4 (0.33)8.5 (0.32)9.0 (0.32)0.6606
    35–49 years13.0 (0.53)13.4 (0.54)13.2 (0.54)13.5 (0.54)12.2 (0.51)12.8 (0.52)12.8 (0.52)0.3787
    ≥40 years17.4 (1.27)15.5 (1.22)16.2 (1.19)17.6 (1.18)15.9 (1.13)17.0 (1.21)17.1 (1.17)0.8138
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic white
        Crude5.2 (0.24)5.2 (0.25)5.9 (0.27)6.3 (0.28)5.4 (0.27)5.4 (0.27)5.3 (0.28)0.9306
        Age-adjusted5.1 (0.05)5.0 (0.05)5.6 (0.05)5.9 (0.05)5.2 (0.05)5.0 (0.05)4.9 (0.05)0.4767
    Hispanic
        Crude7.6 (0.21)7.8 (0.22)8.3 (0.23)8.6 (0.23)7.8 (0.22)8.0 (0.23)8.5 (0.23)0.0506
        Age-adjusted8.6 (0.06)8.6 (0.06)8.9 (0.07)9.0 (0.07)8.1 (0.06)8.2 (0.06)8.6 (0.06)0.2552
    Black
        Crude5.6 (0.41)6.2 (0.44)6.1 (0.44)6.9 (0.48)4.6 (0.41)5.9 (0.47)5.0 (0.44)0.1120
        Age-adjusted6.0 (0.05)6.6 (0.06)6.5 (0.06)7.1 (0.06)4.6 (0.05)6.2 (0.05)5.2 (0.05)0.0297
    Asian/Pacific Islander
        Crude11.3 (0.57)12.0 (0.57)11.7 (0.58)11.7 (0.57)12.5 (0.57)12.0 (0.57)11.8 (0.57)0.4782
        Age-adjusted10.2 (0.07)10.8 (0.07)10.5 (0.07)10.2 (0.07)10.9 (0.07)10.8 (0.07)10.3 (0.07)0.5923
    Other races
        Crude5.6 (1.16)6.5 (1.28)6.0 (1.34)8.3 (1.45)4.3 (1.08)7.4 (1.40)8.1 (1.14)0.2005
        Age-adjusted6.1 (0.05)7.2 (0.06)6.4 (0.06)9.5 (0.07)4.6 (0.05)7.6 (0.06)8.5 (0.06)0.3224
All women
    Crude7.1 (0.15)7.4 (0.15)7.8 (0.16)8.2 (0.16)7.4 (0.16)7.6 (0.16)7.8 (0.16)0.0176
    Age-adjusted7.4 (0.06)7.6 (0.06)7.9 (0.06)8.1 (0.06)7.2 (0.06)7.4 (0.06)7.5 (0.06)0.4104
Age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted7.5 (0.06)7.6 (0.06)7.9 (0.06)8.1 (0.06)7.2 (0.06)7.3 (0.06)7.4 (0.06)0.0655
  • Data are prevalence per 100 (SEM).

  • *

    * P values derived from Poisson regression models using GDM as the outcome variable and year as a continuous variable in the model after adjustment for other variables specified for the row.