Table 1—

Demographic characteristics of the respondents

CharacteristicTotal sample*Adults ≥18 years
Youth <18 years
MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal
n (%)703242 (41)343 (59)585 (83.2)57 (48)61 (52)118 (16.8)
Age35.8 ± 17.042.5 ± 15.238.8 ± 1540.3 ± 15.113.5 ± 1.913.9 ± 2.213.68 ± 2.0
    18–20 years43 (7.4)11 (4.5)32 (9.3)43 (7.4)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
    21–65 years506 (86.5)213 (88.0)293 (85.4)506 (86.5)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
    >65 years36 (6.2)18 (7.4)18 (5.2)36 (6.2)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
Weight (kg)46.7 ± 14.252.4 ± 14.946.9 ± 12.349.2 ± 13.732.1 ± 9.235.5 ± 9.134.0 ± 9.2
BMI (kg/m2)19.8 ± 4.020.5 ± 3.620.7 ± 4.015.1 ± 1.916.9 ± 3.116.01 ± 2.7
    Underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2)304 (43.2)82 (33.9)121 (35.3)203 (34.7)54 (94.7)47 (77.0)101 (85.6)
    BMI 18.5–22.9 kg/m2234 (33.3)99 (40.9)119 (34.7)218 (37.3)3 (5.3)13 (21.3)16 (13.6)
    Overweight (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2)68 (9.7)29 (12.0)39 (11.4)68 (11.6)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)
    Obese (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2)97 (13.8)32 (13.2)64 (18.7)96 (16.4)0.0 (0.0)1 (1.6)118 (100.0)
Waist circumference (inches)28.9 ± 4.431.1 ± 3.828.9 ± 4.129.8 ± 4.123.6 ± 2.525.3 ± 3.224.49 ± 2.9
    Normal203 (83.9)230 (67.1)433 (74.0)NANANA
    Abnormal (male >35 in.; female >31 in.)39 (16.1)113 (16.1)152 (26.0)NANANA
Hip circumference (inches)33.7 ± 4.134.0 ± 2.935.1 ± 3.934.65 ± 3.527.7 ± 2.730.5 ± 3.429.14 ± 3.38
Thigh circumference (inches)17.2 ± 2.317.5 ± 2.017.6 ± 2.317.58 ± 2.215.0 ± 1.915.6 ± 1.815.32 ± 1.85
WHR0.86 ± 0.080.9 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.10.86 ± 0.080.9 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.10.84 ± 0.05
    Normal82 (33.9)158 (46.1)240 (41.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)
    Abnormal (male >0.89; female >0.81)160 (66.1)185 (53.9)345 (59.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)
Capillary glucose (mg/dl)
    In the fasting state92.2 ± 42.597.6 ± 39.792.2 ± 50.194.4 ± 46.182.2 ± 10.780.6 ± 8.681.3 ± 9.6
Prevalence of diabetes (%)4.36.24.45.10.00.00.0
Prevalence of IFG (%)12.119.09.613.573.35.1
    Postprandial state120.2 ± 49.0128.7 ± 54.7119.5 ± 50.9123.3 ± 52.7106.4 ± 17.2103.6 ± 18.0104.9 ± 17.6
Blood pressure (mm/Hg)
    Systolic blood pressure119.3 ± 17.2125.2 ± 16.9119.5 ± 16.9121.8 ± 17.1103.7 ± 11.2109.5 ± 10.7106.7 ± 11.2
Prehypertension (%)37.744.245.841.712.323.017.8
Hypertension (%)15.524.839.918.6000
    Diastolic blood pressure83.3 ± 15.189.0 ± 15.183.0 ± 14.885.5 ± 15.271.3 ± 8.174.0 ± 10.072.7 ± 9.2
Prehypertension (%)28.929.326.527.733.336.134.7
Hypertension (%)39.453.740.245.81.813.17.6
Education
    Illiterate179 (25.5)35 (14.5)142 (41.4)177 ± 30.31 (1.8)1 (1.6)2 ± 1.7
    Up to primary education108 (15.4)42 (17.4)53 (15.5)95 ± 16.26 (10.5)7 (11.5)13 ± 11.0
    High school356 (50.6)132 (54.5)124 (36.2)256 ± 43.848 (84.2)52 (85.2)100 ± 84.7
    Some college/graduate60 (8.5)33 (54.5)24 (7.0)57 ± 9.72 (3.5)1 (1.6)3 ± 2.5
Income (Rs.)1,438.6 ± 1,4911,808.7 ± 1,543.8970.2 ± 1,305.01,438.6 ± 1,491
    <1,000142 (24.3)38 (15.7)104 (30.3)142 (24.3)
    1,000–2,000126 (21.5)94 (38.8)32 (9.3)126 (21.5)
    2,000–3,00035 (6.0)31 (12.8)4 (1.2)35 (6.0)
    >3,00038 (6.5)32 (13.2)6 (1.7)38 (6.5)
Knowledge level3.14 ± 2.43.0 ± 2.42.95 ± 2.42.99 ± 2.43.9 ± 2.43.9 ± 2.33.88 ± 2.3
Physical activity
    Sedentary435 (61.9)99 (40.9)223 (65.0)322 (55.0)26 (45.0)34 (55.0)60 (50.8)
    Moderate91 (12.9)68 (28.1)21 (6.1)89 (15.2)17 (30.0)18 (30.0)35 (29.7)
    Heavy177 (25.2)75 (31.0)99 (28.9)174 (29.7)14 (25.1)9 (15.2)23 (19.5)
Smoking/tobacco85 (12.1)85 (35.1)1 (0.3)86 ± 12.10 (0)0 (0)0
Alcohol intake52 (7.4)51 (21.1)1 (0.3)52 ± 7.40 (0)0 (0)0
Carbohydrate (g)298.24 (134.5)334.70 (156.4)287.77 (116.5)307.2 ± 136.3261.8 (121.4)246.49 (111.4)253.8 ± 116.2
Protein (g)63.83 (29.1)72.98 (35.0)61.03 (25.1)65.9 ± 30.255.54 (19.54)51.02 (20.3)53.2 ± 20.0
Fat (g)15.90 (13.2)18.71 (15.1)13.97 (11.5)15.9 ± 13.317.59 (13.4)14.0 (11.7)15.7 ± 12.6
Total calories1,591.4 (667.8)1,799.17 (784.9)1,520.9 (574.9)1,636.1 ± 683.11,427.7 (572.1)1,316.1 (499.1)1,370.0 ± 536.2
    <1,000 cal116 (16.5)27 (11.2)55 (16.0)82 (14.0)14 (24.6)20 (32.8)34 (28.8)
    1,000–2,000 cal444 (63.2)146 (60.3)227 (66.2)373 (63.8)34 (59.6)37 (60.7)71 (60.2)
    2,000–3,000 cal111 (15.8)48 (19.8)52 (15.2)100 (17.1)8 (14.0)3 (4.9)11 (9.3)
    >3,000 cal32 (4.6)21 (8.7)9 (2.6)30 (5.1)1 (1.8)1 (1.6)2 (1.7)
Fiber (g)5.52 (2.9)5.71 (3.07)5.49 (2.83)5.58 ± 2.934.97 (2.8)5.50 (2.65)5.24 ± 273
  • Data are frequency (percent) or mean ± SD unless otherwise noted. The numbers may not add up to 100% because of missing values.

  • *

    * Total column includes individuals with NGL, IFG, and diabetes.

  • P < 0.05.

  • Postprandial state = within 2 h after the meal. NA, standards for Asian Indian youth are not available; Rs., rupees.