Table 2—

Changes in risk factors after DPM intervention

VariableBefore
After
t value (P value)
TotalIFGDiabetesTotalIFGDiabetesTotalIFGDiabetes
Adults aged ≥18 years
    n703793070379307037930
    BMI (kg/m2)20.6 ± 3.923.3 ± 4.323.3 ± 3.420.8 ± 3.923.7 ± 4.423.5 ± 4.2−2.87 (0.004)−2.27 (0.026)−0.486 (0.630)
    Waist circumference (inches)29.8 ± 4.133.1 ± 4.233.4 ± 4.328.0 ± 4.331.2 ± 4.831.5 ± 4.714.66 (0.001)5.05 (0.001)2.15 (0.039)
    Hip circumference (inches)34.6 ± 3.536.8 ± 3.637.3 ± 3.733.3 ± 3.535.7 ± 3.736.1 ± 5.113.68 (0.001)4.53 (0.001)1.94 (0.062)
    WHR0.86 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.100.83 ± 0.080.87 ± 0.090.87 ± 0.106.32 (0.001)3.04 (0.003)1.06 (0.297)
    Thigh circumference (inches)17.5 ± 2.118.5 ± 2.018.3 ± 2.116.6 ± 2.217.8 ± 2.617.5 ± 2.313.47 (0.001)3.45 (0.001)2.39 (0.023)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)121.8 ± 17.1129.2 ± 15.8132.9 ± 18.5120.1 ± 18.5123.5 ± 15.5129.7 ± 221.98 (0.048)3.49 (0.001)0.72 (0.477)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)85.4 ± 15.293.2 ± 14.992.5 ± 18.279.5 ± 14.082.2 ± 13.787.0 ± 15.88.40 (0.001)5.58 (0.001)1.54 (0.134)
    FBG (mg/dl)94.4 ± 46.1108.4 ± 7.4240.7 ± 12891.2 ± 30.896.5 ± 15.7180.5 ± 81.92.01 (0.045)7.08 (0.001)2.27 (0.031)
    Calories from carbohydrates (%)74.7 ± 6.373.4 ± 6.575.77 ± 5.474.6 ± 6.273.4 ± 6.776.74 ± 4.1−0.424 (0.671)0.018 (0.986)−0.96 (0.343)
    Calories from protein (%)16.0 ± 2.416.4 ± 2.916.58 ± 2.715.7 ± 2.015.6 ± 2.116.68 ± 1.4−3.04 (0.002)2.10 (0.039)−0.18 (0.858)
    Calories from fat (%)4.0 ± 2.94.6 ± 2.67.63 ± 5.124.3 ± 2.94.9 ± 3.16.57 ± 4.36−1.49 (0.136)−0.78 (0.436)1.15 (0.258)
    Carbohydrates (g)307.1 ± 136.2285.3 ± 106.5251.8 ± 96.1310.5 ± 112.0341.3 ± 115.1260.3 ± 78−0.487 (0.626)−3.41 (0.001)−0.376 (0.710)
    Protein (g)65.9 ± 30.163.5 ± 25.753.8 ± 18.765.2 ± 23.972.1 ± 22.856.6 ± 17.0−2.81 (0.005)−2.33 (0.022)−0.588 (0.561)
    Fat (g)15.9 ± 13.318.1 ± 14.724.4 ± 18.318.0 ± 14.021.1 ± 12.923.1 ± 16.80.468 (0.640)−1.40 (0.164)0.374 (0.711)
    Total caloric intake (cal)1,636.1 ± 683.11,558.5 ± 576.81,442.4 ± 498.61,665.6 ± 574.11,844.0 ± 538.31,475.1 ± 441.9−0.846 (0.398)−3.37 (0.001)−0.272 (0.787)
    Dietary fiber intake (g)5.5 ± 2.95.4 ± 3.15.50 ± 2.26.2 ± 3.56.6 ± 3.37.74 ± 4.43−3.50 (0.001)−2.61 (0.011)−2.61 (0.014)
    Knowledge score2.9 ± 2.33.3 ± 2.53.63 ± 2.43.9 ± 2.44.7 ± 2.44.57 ± 2.3−8.03 (0.001)−4.50 (0.007)−1.78 (0.085)
Youth aged 10–17 years
    n112601126011260
    BMI (kg/m2)16.0 ± 2.716.0 ± 1.716.5 ± 2.417.7 ± 2.23.86 (0.001)−3.37 (0.020)
    Waist circumference (inches)24.4 ± 2.924.5 ± 3.622.7 ± 2.523.0 ± 3.36.84 (0.001)1.46 (0.203)
    Hip circumference (inches)29.1 ± 3.329.5 ± 4.228.1 ± 3.128.84.25.22 (0.001)1.00 (0.363)
    WHR0.8 ± 0.018.3 ± 0.080.8 ± 0.00.80 ± 0.063.90 (0.001)1.163 (0.297)
    Thigh circumference (inches)15.3 ± 1.816.5 ± 2.114.5 ± 1.814.7 ± 2.44.59 (0.001)2.61 (0.048)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)106.6 ± 11.2106.8 ± 12.8103.9 ± 10.8101.0 ± 8.91.95 (0.001)0.85 (0.435)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)72.71 ± 9.276.7 ± 9.869.5 ± 8.671.7 ± 7.52.90 (0.004)0.76 (0.482)
    FBG (mg/dl)81.3 ± 9.6104.5 ± 7.9482.2 ± 10.586.0 ± 10.9−0.817 (0.416)3.67 (0.014)
    Calories from carbohydrates (%)73.1 ± 7.8104.5 ± 7.974.1 ± 7.774.2 ± 6.4−1.00 (0.317)−0.689 (0.522)
    Calories from protein (%)15.8 ± 3.172.0 ± 8.914.9 ± 2.013.8 ± 1.72.59 (0.011)1.371 (0.229)
    Calories from fat (%)4.8 ± 3.515.4 ± 2.74.8 ± 3.95.3 ± 2.60.040 (0.968)0.162 (0.878)
    Carbohydrates (g)253.8 ± 116.15.6 ± 4.3263.0 ± 106.8304.3 ± 113.4−0.699 (0.486)−0.053 (0.960)
    Protein (g)15.7 ± 12.6300.0 ± 148.217.0 ± 14.456.7 ± 23.2−0.813 (0.418)0.328 (0.757)
    Fat (g)53.2 ± 20.018.8 ± 13.653.3 ± 22.919.8 ± 10.1−0.056 (0.955)−0.197 (0.852)
    Total caloric intake (cal)1,370.0 ± 536.21,617.9 ± 622.11,419.5 ± 547.61,621.8 ± 543.9−0.766 (0.445)−0.10 (0.992)
    Dietary fiber intake (g)5.2 ± 2.77.3 ± 3.35.7 ± 3.96.3 ± 5.1−1.04 (0.300)0.355 (0.737)
    Knowledge score3.8 ± 2.35.0 ± 1.84.5 ± 1.96.2 ± 1.8−2.51 (0.013)−1.12 (0.315)
  • Data are means ± SD. Total column includes individuals with NGL, IFG, and diabetes.