Table 2—

Unadjusted baseline characteristics among 2,298 participants from the subcohort by quintiles of concentrations of GGT and alanine aminotransferase: EPIC-Potsdam Study 1994–1998 to 2005

GGT (mean concentration units/l)
PAlanine aminotransferase (mean concentration units/l)
P
Quintile 1 (6.6)Quintile 2 (10.8)Quintile 3 (15.8)Quintile 4 (22.5)Quintile 5 (70.0)Quintile 1 (10.3)Quintile 2 (14.2)Quintile 3 (16.8)Quintile 4 (21.8)Quintile 5 (36.2)
Age (years)47.449.349.649.751.1<0.00147.949.049.750.050.4<0.001
Sports activity (h/week)1.21.11.11.00.90.0221.11.21.00.90.90.116
Bicycling (h/week)2.21.91.71.81.60.0061.91.92.01.71.60.031
BMI (kg/m2)24.224.825.726.628.0<0.00124.324.825.526.728.0<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)80.482.385.186.891.1<0.00181.282.883.687.291.0<0.001
Hypertension25.734.638.247.258.0<0.00130.535.536.046.755.8<0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)153.1169.3177.6177.3187.0<0.001156.6169.5175.2180.8183.1<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)45.848.848.548.047.80.07046.148.349.148.347.30.214
C-reactive protein (mg/l)0.91.31.61.82.7<0.0011.51.21.62.02.1<0.001
Glucose (mg/dl)80.186.888.290.392.8<0.00182.987.087.088.293.6<0.001
GGT (units/l)12.015.220.324.951.3<0.001
ALT (units/l)13.715.819.821.130.8<0.001
Women59.862.058.865.261.80.31659.356.464.962.163.50.065
University degree41.242.541.636.330.7<0.00144.042.537.337.632.4<0.001
Heavy or very heavy physical strain at work6.65.16.65.36.60.9005.46.86.07.34.80.768
Never smoked51.754.343.944.443.90.00143.347.751.445.448.30.316
Alcohol use >40 g/day5.08.16.48.815.4<0.0017.69.58.27.511.40.134
  • Data are means or percentages. GGT quintiles for men were defined as ≤12, 13–18, 19–27, 28–46, and ≥47 units/l. Quintiles for women were defined as ≤6, 7–9, 10–12, 13–20, and ≥21 units/l. ALT quintiles for men were defined as ≤15, 16–19, 20–25, 26–33, and ≥34 units/l. Quintiles for women were defined as ≤10, 11–12, 13–15, 16–19, and ≥20 units/l.