Table 3—

Adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident diabetes by quintiles of concentrations of GGT and ALT among 3,011 participants: EPIC-Potsdam Study 1994–1998 to 2005

Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5P for linear trend
GGT
    Total
        Model 11.001.77 (1.10–2.87)3.12 (1.99–4.89)6.01 (3.89–9.28)8.48 (5.52–13.04)<0.001
        Model 21.001.42 (0.85–2.35)2.14 (1.34–3.44)3.60 (2.28–5.68)4.30 (2.74–6.75)<0.001
        Model 31.001.13 (0.66–1.93)1.67 (1.01–2.77)2.77 (1.71–4.49)2.67 (1.63–4.37)<0.001
    Men
        Model 11.001.84 (1.00–3.37)3.64 (2.07–6.39)7.37 (4.22–12.87)7.27 (4.17–12.68)<0.001
        Model 21.001.29 (0.67–2.50)2.28 (1.25–4.16)4.00 (2.20–7.28)3.49 (1.92–6.36)<0.001
        Model 31.001.03 (0.52–2.04)1.81 (0.96–3.41)3.33 (1.80–6.15)2.15 (1.13–4.06)0.035
    Women
        Model 11.001.76 (0.81–3.82)2.35 (1.11–4.99)3.95 (1.97–7.93)9.23 (4.65–18.28)<0.001
        Model 21.001.46 (0.66–3.21)1.74 (0.81–3.71)2.48 (1.24–4.96)4.37 (2.19–8.73)<0.001
        Model 31.000.99 (0.45–2.20)0.99 (0.44–2.25)1.35 (0.65–2.80)2.01 (0.96–4.23)<0.001
ALT
    Total
        Model 11.001.21 (0.80–1.84)1.96 (1.36–2.83)2.61 (1.81–3.76)5.55 (3.93–7.83)<0.001
        Model 21.001.25 (0.80–1.94)1.55 (1.05–2.30)1.73 (1.17–2.56)2.93 (2.02–4.25)<0.001
        Model 31.000.93 (0.56–1.53)1.28 (0.83–1.96)1.35 (0.88–2.07)1.93 (1.27–2.92)<0.001
    Men
        Model 11.001.36 (0.80–2.29)2.69 (1.68–4.30)2.82 (1.73–4.62)6.49 (4.09–10.30)<0.001
        Model 21.001.50 (0.84–2.66)2.23 (1.33–3.75)1.64 (0.95–2.83)3.54 (2.10–5.95)<0.001
        Model 31.001.19 (0.63–2.25)1.68 (0.94–3.00)1.28 (0.69–2.35)2.19 (1.24–3.88)0.048
    Women
        Model 11.000.99 (0.49–2.00)1.14 (0.64–2.02)2.18 (1.25–3.79)4.40 (2.62–7.40)<0.001
        Model 21.001.12 (0.53–2.37)0.96 (0.50–1.83)1.71 (0.94–3.13)2.22 (1.26–3.93)<0.001
        Model 31.001.05 (0.46–2.42)1.02 (0.53–1.96)1.42 (0.77–2.64)1.54 (0.85–2.78)0.048
  • Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, educational status, smoking status, alcohol use, occupational activity, and sports activity. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, educational status, smoking status, alcohol use, occupational activity, sports activity, waist circumference, and BMI. Model 3: Adjusted for age, sex, educational status, smoking status, alcohol use, occupational activity, sports activity, waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and glucose. GGT quintiles for men were defined as ≤12, 13–18, 19–27, 28–46, and ≥47 units/l. Quintiles for women were defined as ≤6, 7–9, 10–12, 13–20, and ≥21 units/l. ALT quintiles for men were defined as ≤15, 16–19, 20–25, 26–33, and ≥34 units/l. Quintiles for women were defined as ≤10, 11–12, 13–15, 16–19, and ≥20 units/l.