Table 1—

Characteristics of 47,904 participants included in the study

AllA1C levels
P value*
<4.0%4.0 to <5.0%5.0 to <6.0%6.0 to <7.0%≥7.0%Prior diabetes diagnosis
Total47,904 (100)142 (0.3)12,867 (26.9)30,222 (63.1)2,669 (5.6)1,596 (3.3)408 (0.9)
Sex
    Male21,280 (44.4)60 (42.3)5,251 (40.8)13,774 (45.6)1,186 (44.4)825 (51.7)184 (45.1)<0.001
    Female26,624 (55.6)82 (57.8)7,616 (59.2)16,448 (54.4)1,483 (55.6)771 (48.3)224 (54.9)
Ethnicity
    European and other5,844 (12.2)17 (12.0)2,463 (19.1)3,172 (10.5)110 (4.1)65 (4.1)17 (4.2)<0.001
    Mâori33,753 (70.5)99 (69.7)8,520 (66.2)21,745 (72.0)1,949 (73.0)1,116 (69.9)324 (79.4)
    Pacific5,904 (12.3)8 (5.6)1,208 (9.4)3,877 (12.8)457 (17.1)311 (19.5)43 (10.5)
    Asian2,403 (5.0)18 (12.7)676 (5.3)1,428 (4.7)153 (5.7)104 (6.5)24 (5.9)
Age (years)
    0–3015,866 (33.1)76 (53.5)6,228 (48.4)9,257 (30.6)215 (8.1)81 (5.1)9 (2.2)<0.001
    31–4013,788 (28.8)36 (25.4)3,929 (30.5)8,990 (29.8)525 (19.7)257 (16.1)51 (12.5)
    41–5010,143 (21.2)21 (14.8)1,914 (14.9)6,912 (22.9)718 (26.9)482 (30.2)96 (23.5)
    ≥518,107 (16.9)9 (6.3)796 (6.2)5,063 (16.8)1,211 (45.4)776 (48.6)252 (61.8)
Smoking status
    Never smoker16,876 (35.2)57 (40.1)4,796 (37.3)10,203 (33.8)996 (37.3)664 (41.6)160 (39.2)<0.001
    Ex-smoker5,211 (10.9)11 (7.8)1,371 (10.7)3,124 (10.3)386 (14.5)243 (15.2)76 (18.6)
    Current smoker19,191 (40.1)43 (30.3)4,702 (36.5)12,949 (42.9)904 (33.9)469 (29.4)124 (30.4)
    Unknown6,626 (13.8)31 (21.8)1,998 (15.5)3,946 (13.1)383 (14.4)220 (13.8)48 (11.8)
  • Data are frequency (%).

  • *

    * P value of the association between A1C level and explanatory variable.