Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of study subjects stratified by glucose tolerance status in pregnancy

Normal GCT NGTAbnormal GCT NGT2/3-h GIGT1-h GIGTGDMP
n74128342897
Age (years)34.4 ± 4.233.9 ± 4.334.4 ± 4.434.6 ± 3.434.4 ± 4.30.8975
Weeks gestation32.0 (31.0–34.0)29.0 (28.0–30.3)29.0 (28.0–32.0)29.0 (28.0–31.0)29.0 (28.0–31.0)<0.0001
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)22.9 (21.5–25.9)23.8 (21.2–27.7)23.1 (22.1–26.0)26.6 (21.9–30.2)25.2 (22.2–30.1)0.0148
Weight gain in pregnancy (kg)12.8 (10.5–16.4)10.4 (7.7–13.6)10.0 (8.2–14.6)9.3 (6.8–13.6)9.1 (5.7–13.1)<0.0001
Weight gain per week (kg/week)0.4 (0.3–0.5)0.3 (0.28–0.5)0.3 (0.28–0.5)0.4 (0.2–0.45)0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.2159
Smoking exposure (%)0.1170
    Never54.164.876.550.072.2
    Remote44.634.423.546.425.8
    Current1.40.80.03.62.1
Parity (%)0.7271
    Nulliparous62.245.355.950.052.6
    132.440.629.432.139.2
    >15.414.114.717.98.3
Previous GDM/macrosomia (%)0.04.78.814.38.30.0134
Family history of diabetes (%)40.548.450.060.755.70.0382
Glucose challenge test (mmol/l)5.7 (5.2–6.6)8.4 (8.1–9.2)8.4 (7.7–9.0)8.4 (7.9–9.2)8.8 (8.2–9.6)<0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.2 (4.0–4.5)4.4 (4.2–4.6)4.5 (4.2–4.8)4.8 (4.5–5.1)4.6 (4.4–5.1)<0.0001
1-h glucose (mmol/l)7.9 (6.9–8.6)8.6 (7.7–9.3)9.6 (8.9–10.1)11.1 (10.8–11.3)11.1 (10.8–11.8)<0.0001
2-h glucose (mmol/l)6.6 (5.9–7.5)7.6 (6.5–8.3)9.0 (8.1–9.6)8.3 (7.6–8.7)10.1 (9.5–10.8)<0.0001
3-h glucose (mmol/l)6.0 (5.1–6.7)5.8 (4.6–6.8)8.1 (7.0–8.7)6.4 (5.2–7.1)8.1 (6.7–9.1)<0.0001
AUCgluc19.5 ± 2.220.8 ± 2.424.3 ± 1.424.9 ± 1.227.7 ± 2.3<0.0001
ISOGTT5.5 (3.6–7.5)5.4 (3.7–7.6)3.6 (2.8–5.2)3.4 (2.8–4.6)3.3 (2.3–5.2)<0.0001
Insulinogenic Index/HOMA-IR13.2 (9.6–18.4)12.8 (8.6–18.9)8.2 (5.8–11.1)5.9 (4.0–8.8)6.3 (3.1–10.2)<0.0001
  • Data are median (interquartile range), mean ± SD, or % unless otherwise indicated. P values refer to overall differences across the groups.