Table 2

Cardiopulmonary and metabolic data of participants during incremental maximal exercise

CON-AT1D-AMain effect by ANOVACON-IT1D-IMain effect by ANOVA
Aerobic fitness
 VO2max (mL · min−1 · kg−1)41.7 ± 6.939.6 ± 8.540.3 ± 7.334.6 ± 7.1*
 MAP (W)222 ± 28197 ± 30224 ± 54186 ± 46
 HRmax (bpm)189.4 ± 8.6190.6 ± 11.5189.2 ± 10.2186.7 ± 11.9
 RERmax1.1 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.1
 Blood lactate max (mmol · L−1)11.9 ± 5.112.7 ± 2.612.9 ± 4.513.9 ± 2.3
 RPE at max19.0 ± 0.618.7 ± 0.818.8 ± 0.519.1 ± 0.7
Factors possibly influencing prefrontal cortex hemodynamics and oxygenation
 O2 arterial content
  Pao2 (mmHg)
   Rest97.8 ± 10.592.1 ± 4.3Exercise: P < 0.0198.4 ± 5.490.2 ± 8.3Exercise: P < 0.01
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max110.8 ± 15.497.7 ± 4.9Interaction: NS105.6 ± 5.8104.2 ± 15.6†††Interaction: NS
  Sao2 (%)
   Rest98.1 ± 0.498.2 ± 1.0Exercise: P < 0.0598.3 ± 0.898.3 ± 0.7Exercise: P < 0.01
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max97.3 ± 2.196.7 ± 1.3Interaction: NS97.2 ± 1.197.3 ± 0.7Interaction: NS
  Hb (g · dL−1)
   Rest15.0 ± 0.815.7 ± 1.1Exercise: P < 0.00114.7 ± 1.614.8 ± 1.1Exercise: P < 0.01
Group: P < 0.05Group: NS
   Max15.7 ± 1.117.7 ± 2.0Interaction: NS15.7 ± 1.915.9 ± 0.9Interaction: NS
  Cao2 (mL · 100 mL−1)
   Rest20.4 ± 1.121.5 ± 1.4Exercise: P = 0.0720.1 ± 2.120.3 ± 1.5Exercise: P < 0.01
Group: P < 0.05Group: NS
   Max21.5 ± 1.423.8 ± 2.6Interaction: NS21.2 ± 2.521.6 ± 1.8Interaction: NS
 Exercise-influenced metabolic vasoactive stimuli
  Paco2 (mmHg)
   Rest39.0 ± 2.238.8 ± 2.4Exercise: P < 0.00137.3 ± 3.939.4 ± 2.8Exercise: P < 0.001
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max28.3 ± 3.2†††29.6 ± 2.4†††Interaction: NS30.7 ± 4.6†††31.9 ± 3.7†††Interaction: NS
  Arterial pH
   Rest7.41 ± 0.027.39 ± 0.05Exercise: P < 0.0017.43 ± 0.027.43 ± 0.01Exercise: P < 0.001
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max7.27 ± 0.077.25 ± 0.04Interaction: NS7.26 ± 0.087.27 ± 0.05Interaction: NS
  [K+] (mmol · L−1)
   Rest4.84 ± 0.365.15 ± 0.38Exercise: P < 0.014.80 ± 0.575.10 ± 0.91Exercise: P < 0.05
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max5.62 ± 0.616.61 ± 0.90Interaction: NS5.52 ± 1.115.49 ± 0.69Interaction: NS
 Diabetes-influenced metabolic variables
  Plasma glucose (mmol · L−1)
   Rest5.4 ± 0.46.2 ± 1.8Exercise: P < 0.0014.3 ± 1.47.5 ± 3.4Exercise: P < 0.001
Group: NSGroup: P < 0.05
   Max6.3 ± 0.86.8 ± 1.7Interaction: NS6.8 ± 1.49.1 ± 2.4††*Interaction: NS
  Serum free insulin (mIU · L−1)
   Rest10.8 ± 5.634.3 ± 49.2Exercise: NS12.5 ± 9.831.7 ± 33.9Exercise: NS
Group: NSGroup: NS
   Max10.3 ± 4.335.5 ± 43.8Interaction: NS9.6 ± 6.843.4 ± 49.0Interaction: NS
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Hb, hemoglobin; HR, heart rate; MAP, maximal aerobic power; Max, at exhaustion from the incremental exercise; NS, not significant; RER, respiratory exchange ratio; Rest, at rest just before the exercise; RPE, rating of perceived exertion.

  • Wilcoxon test (variables only indicated at max) significantly different from their respective CON group:

  • *P < 0.05.

  • Main effects from ANOVA: exercise, exercise effect; group, group effect; interaction, exercise × group interaction. ANOVA post hoc analyses significantly different from their respective CON group:

  • *P < 0.05.

  • Significantly different from rest:

  • P < 0.05,

  • ††P < 0.01,

  • †††P < 0.001.