Table 3—

Prospective cohort studies reporting measures of association between intake of fruits and vegetables and diabetes

Author, year (reference)PopulationnAge (years), sexExposure measureAdjustmentsFollow-up (years)Case ascertainmentEventsAssociation (95% CI)Notes
Colditz et al., 1992 (5)U.S. nurses84,36034–59, F61-item FFQAge, BMI, weight change, alcohol energy6Follow-up questionnaire702 diabetesHR Q5/1 0.76 (0.50–1.16) vegetable intakeQ5/1: ≥2.9 serving/day of vegetables vs. <1.2
Feskens et al., 1995 (6)Finnish and Dutch33870–89, MCross-check diet historyAge, cohort, BMI, past BMI, past energy intake30OGTT71 IGT, 26 diabetesInverse association of 2-h postload glucose and intake of vegetables and legumesMultivariate regression predicting 2-h postload glucose
Meyer et al., 2000 (7)Postmenopausal Iowa women35,98855–69, F127-item FFQAge, smoking, total energy, BMI, alcohol, WHR, education, physical activity6Iowa death register, biennial questionnaire, and NDI1,141 diabetesHR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.05 (0.84–1.31), HR vegetables 1.07 (0.86–1.32), HR fruit 1.14 (0.93–1.39)Q5/1: >51 servings/week fruit + vegetables vs. <23, Q5/1: >33.5 servings/week vegetable vs. <14, Q 5/1: >19 servings/week fruit vs. <6.25
Ford and Mokdad, 2001 (9)NHEFS9,66525–74, M + FSingle 24-h dietary recallAge, race, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol, SBP, lipids, HTN, physical activity19Follow-up questionnaire, hospital records, death certificates1,018 diabetesHR fruit + vegetable intake 0.73 (0.54–0.98)≥5 times/day vs. 0 times/day, no portion size included; also identified a sex interaction
Liu et al., 2004 (9)WHS38,018≥45, F131-item FFQAge, smoking, total energy, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, HTN, hyperlipidemia, FH8.8Follow-up questionnaire1,614 diabetesHR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.04 (0.87–1.25), HR fruit 0.97 (0.82–1.23), HR vegetables 1.03 (0.86–1.23)Q5/1: median 10.1 servings/day fruit + vegetables vs. 2.5, Q5/1: median 3.9 servings/day fruit vs. 0.62
Montonen et al., 2005 (10)Finnish4,30440–69, M + FDiet historyAge, sex, smoking, total energy, BMI, FH, geographic area23Finnish Social Insurance Institution's national database383 diabetesHR Q4/1 vegetables 0.77 (0.57–1.03), HR green vegetables 0.69 (0.50–0.93), HR fruit 0.82 (0.61–1.11), HR berries 0.63 (0.47–0.85)Q4/1: >130 g/day vegetables vs. <42, Q4/1: >43 g/day green vegetables vs. <11, Q4/1: >138 g/day fruit vs. <20
  • F, female; FH, family history of diabetes; HTN, hypertension; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; M, male; NHEFS, First National Health and Nutrition Examination Study Epidemiologic Follow-up Study; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; Q, quantile; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; WHS, Women's Health Study.