Table 1—

Characteristics of youth with type 1 diabetes by level of dietary adherence

LowestMiddleHighestOverall
n41 (34)39 (33)39 (33)119
Age (years)12.2 ± 1.612.4 ± 1.711.8 ± 1.512.1 ± 1.6
Female sex24 (59)14 (36)21 (54)59 (50)
BMI (Z score)0.5 ± 0.60.8 ± 0.70.8 ± 1.00.7 ± 0.8
Family structure
    Two-parent household30 (75)33 (85)36 (92)99 (83)
    One-parent household10 (25)6 (15)3 (8)19 (17)
Race/ethnicity
    White25 (63)29 (74)31 (80)85 (72)
    Black9 (22)3 (8)2 (5)14 (12)
    Hispanic4 (10)4 (10)2 (5)10 (9)
    Other2 (5)3 (8)4 (10)9 (7)
Annual income
    >$100,00012 (31)13 (35)16 (44)41 (37)
    $50,000 to $100,00015 (38)16 (43)15 (42)46 (41)
    $30,000 to $50,0003 (8)3 (8)5 (14)11 (10)
    <$30,0009 (23)5 (14)0 (0)14 (12)
Caregiver educational level
    Graduate school6 (15)4 (10)6 (16)16 (13)
    College or associate degree15 (39)16 (41)21 (55)52 (45)
    High school or GED16 (41)18 (46)11 (29)45 (39)
    Less than high school2 (5)1 (3)0 (0)3 (3)
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)1.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.3
Insulin delivery
    Insulin pump11 (27)9 (24)18 (46)38 (32)
    ≥4 injections/day6 (14)11 (29)9 (23)26 (22)
    3 injections/day11 (27)14 (37)7 (18)32 (27)
    ≤2 injections/day13 (32)4 (10)5 (13)22 (19)
BGM frequency*
    >5/day6 (15)12 (31)18 (46)36 (30)
    3–5/day25 (61)24 (61)19 (49)68 (57)
    <3/day10 (24)3 (8)2 (5)15 (13)
A1C level (%)*
    Unadjusted9.1 ± 1.48.2 ± 1.18.0 ± 1.18.4 ± 1.3
    Adjusted§9.0 ± 2.0§8.1 ± 2.0§8.4 ± 2.1
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). §Adjusted for age, sex, BGM frequency, daily insulin dose, pump use, parent education.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 based on χ2 (categorical) or ANOVA (continuous), comparing differences across three levels of dietary adherence.

  • P = 0.003;

  • P = 0.0001;

  • §

    § P = 0.004;

  • P = 0.06. GED, General Education Development.