Table 1—

Fully adjusted HRs (95% CI) for the onset of a new foot ulcer or LEA

VariableFoot ulcerLEA
Prior foot ulcer7.85 (7.16–8.62)*13.06 (10.55–16.18)*
Prior amputation8.00 (6.74–9.49)*31.03 (23.93–40.23)*
Smoking
    0 per dayRefRef
    1–15 per day0.94 (0.84–1.05)1.16 (0.88–1.53)
    >15 per day0.97 (0.85–1.11)0.62 (0.40–0.96)
Age by category
    35–40 yearsRefRef
    >40–50 years1.18 (0.92–1.49)1.41 (0.71–2.89)
    >50–60 years1.26 (1.02–1.56)1.81 (0.98–3.36)
    >60–70 years1.56 (1.27–1.92)2.12 (1.16–3.85)
    >70 years2.42 (1.98–2.96)*2.80 (1.56–5.03)*
A1C by category
    ≤7.0%RefRef
    >7.0% and ≤9.0%1.15 (1.05–1.26)1.80 (1.38–2.35)
    >9.0%1.66 (1.50–1.83)*2.77 (2.10–3.64)*
Sex (women Ref)0.98 (0.91–1.06)0.50 (0.40–0.62)*
History of lower-extremity PAD3.80 (3.51–4.12)*12.00 (9.74–14.77)*
Loss of neurosensation2.17 (1.88–2.51)*2.34 (1.62,3.38)*
History of hypertension1.17 (1.08,1.27)*1.42 (1.15–1.75)*
History of myocardial ischemia1.46 (1.35–1.59)*1.63 (1.31–2.02)*
Duration of diabetes (years)1.03 (1.03–1.04)1.04 (1.04–1.05)
Mean arterial pressure0.99 (0.99–1.00)1.00 (0.99–1.01)
ESRD6.12 (3.54–10.55)*15.66 (6.48–37.86)*
  • P value, compared with reference (Ref)or, if categories are presented, as test for trend,

  • *

    * P ≤ 0.001.