Table 2—

Characteristics of the population at baseline (diabetes only)

No retinopathyIncident retinopathyP value
n28725
Age (years)60 ± 1163 ± 100.175
Male sex (%)53600.499
FPG (mmol/l)7.6 ± 1.910.8 ± 3.8<0.001
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)*12.4 ± 3.616.2 ± 6.90.006
A1C (%)6.3 ± 1.28.5 ± 1.9<0.001
C-peptide (ng/ml)3.9 ± 1.72.9 ± 1.80.007
Known diabetes (%)43800.001
Duration of diabetes (years)0 (0–3)5 (2–9)<0.001
Taking insulin or tablets (%)57900.007
BMI (kg/m2)30.4 ± 5.929.1 ± 6.10.296
Waist circumference (cm)101.4 ± 13.798.8 ± 12.90.366
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)0.8 (0.5–1.6)1.2 (0.5–4.5)0.115
Lipid treatment (%)26280.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.40.971
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.7 ± 1.05.2 ± 0.90.026
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.9 (1.3–2.8)1.7 (0.8–2.6)0.189
Current smoker (%)1040.334
Hypertension (%)40400.313
SBP (mmHg)142 ± 18152 ± 230.005
DBP (mmHg)75 ± 1278 ± 140.334
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range).

  • *

    * Those with KDM and on current treatment with tablets or insulin did not undergo an oral glucose tolerance test.

  • Newly diagnosed participants given duration of zero. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.