Table 2—

Factors associated with total plasma carotenoids at baseline

Plasma carotenoid quartiles
P trend
Quartile 1 (<1.82 μmol/l)Quartile 2 (1.82–2.55 μmol/l)Quartile 3 (2.55–3.43 μmol/l)Quartile 4 (≥3.43 μmol/l)
Sociodemographic factors
    Women40.152.565.883.2<10−4
    Age at baseline (years)64.7 ± 2.965.3 ± 2.865.0 ± 3.164.8 ± 3.00.06
    Higher education43.049.350.849.40.28
Consumption factors
    Current/former smokers56.248.237.922.5<10−4
    Alcohol consumer (>20 ml/day)41.233.224.714.1<10−4
Health factors
    BMI (kg/ m2)26.5 ± 3.725.4 ± 3.424.6 ± 3.323.6 ± 3.0<10−4
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.55 ± 0.411.56 ± 0.351.71 ± 0.421.82 ± 0.46<10−4
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.98 ± 0.996.23 ± 0.916.47 ± 0.916.86 ± 1.01<10−4
    Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio4.10 ± 1.134.22 ± 1.374.01 ± 1.094.00 ± 1.170.09
    Lipid-lowering drugs user32.526.920.415.9<10−4
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)81.2 ± 11.879.8 ± 11.077.9 ± 10.876.9 ± 9.7<10−4
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.4 ± 18.1134.2 ± 18.0130.0 ± 18.0126.2 ± 15.1<10−4
    Cardiovascular disease antecedents13.211.74.706.30.0004
  • Data are means ± SD or percent.