Table 3—

Effects of total plasma carotenoids on onset of dysglycemia during the EVA study follow-up: results of multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses

Complete modelMultivariate models*
Hazard ratio (95% CI)P
Total plasma carotenoids (μmol/l)
    Q4 vs. Q10.42 (0.22–0.82)0.01
    Q3 vs. Q10.69 (0.41–1.15)0.16
    Q2 vs. Q10.80 (0.48–1.32)0.38
Sex0.90 (0.53–1.54)0.71
Education (high versus low level)0.91 (0.62–1.34)0.63
Smoking habits (current/former versus nonsmoker)1.08 (0.67–1.75)0.74
Alcohol intake (>20 vs. ≤20 ml)1.18 (0.75–1.85)0.47
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.99 (0.96–1.01)0.37
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.11
Cardiovascular disease antecedents (yes versus no)0.69 (0.34–1.40)0.30
Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio1.22 (1.06–1.40)0.005
Lipid-lowering drugs user (yes versus no)1.30 (0.85–1.98)0.22
BMI (kg/m2)1.11 (1.05–1.17)0.0002
  • *

    * Adjustment for all variables listed in the table; model performed on 1,035 participants.

  • P trend = 0.08.