Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project participants according to incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up

No diabetesIncident diabetesP
n (%)406 (82.5)86 (17.5)
Age (years)*25.4 ± 13.031.5 ± 12.4<0.001
Sex (male/female)173/233 (42.6/57.4)34/52 (39.5/60.5)0.60
Anthropometry*
    Height (cm)165.3 ± 10.4166.8 ± 9.10.16
    Weight (kg)69.8 ± 18.182.0 ± 15.9<0.001
    BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 5.529.4 ± 5.3<0.001
    Percent body fat (%)33.0 ± 13.240.1 ± 10.3<0.001
    Waist circumference (cm)94.4 ± 14.1104.7 ± 12.1<0.001
Blood pressure
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)113.0 (103.5–120.0)118.0 (110.0–130.0)<0.001
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)*64.0 ± 11.569.9 ± 12.3<0.001
    Hypertension§54 (13.3)29 (33.7)<0.001
    Lipid profile
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)*1.26 ± 0.281.19 ± 0.250.02
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)*2.42 ± 0.742.74 ± 0.66<0.001
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.10 (0.81–1.53)1.48 (1.16–1.82)<0.001
Glucose homeostasis
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)*5.3 ± 0.465.6 ± 0.58<0.001
    2-h glucose (mmol/l)*5.4 ± 1.626.5 ± 2.08<0.001
    Fasting insulin (pmol/l)94 (66–131)123 (91–187)<0.001
    IGT36 (8.9)23 (26.7)<0.001
    Impaired fasting glucose22 (5.4)10 (11.6)0.005
Adipokines
    CRP (mg/l)1.45 (0.40–4.28)2.82 (1.24–7.48)<0.001
    IL-6 (ng/l)0.67 (0.33–1.23)0.83 (0.52–1.38)0.01
    Serum amyloid A (mg/l)7.04 (4.43–11.1)8.61 (5.52–14.5)0.03
    Leptin (ng/ml)10.6 (5.20–19.4)15.0 (9.40–25.7)<0.001
    Adiponectin (μg/ml)14.5 (11.0–19.6)11.0 (8.01–15.1)<0.001
    Adiponectin-to-leptin ratio1.36 (0.65–3.25)0.73 (0.36–1.44)<0.001
  • Data are n (%), mean ± SD, and median (25th–75th percentile). Number of subjects (n) for each characteristic varies slightly due to occasional missing values.

  • *

    * Welch's t test performed.

  • χ2 test performed.

  • Welch's t test performed on log transformation.

  • §

    § Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive medication therapy.

  • IGT is defined as fasting plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l and 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 and <11.1 mmol/l.

  • Impaired fasting glucose is defined as fasting plasma glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l and 2-h postload glucose <7.8 mmol/l.