Table 2—

Baseline characteristics of the EURODIAB PCS cohort by life/death status

DiedSurvived
n1022,685
Age at baseline (years)41 ± 1132 ± 10
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)20 ± 918 ± 8
Duration of diabetes (years)22 ± 1214 ± 9
A1C (%)*8.8 ± 2.28.4 ± 1.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135 ± 27121 ± 17
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 1575 ± 11
Pulse pressure (mmHg)57 ± 2145 ± 14
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.9 ± 1.35.3 ± 1.1
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.8 ± 1.13.3 ± 1.0
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.4
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l)1.1 (0.9–1.8)0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)4.5 ± 1.43.8 ± 1.1
Waist-to-hip ratio (men/women)0.93 ± 0.09/0.84 ± 0.130.88 ± 0.08/0.80 ± 0.11
BMI (kg/m2) (men/women)24.0 ± 2.9/23.5 ± 3.623.6 ± 2.6/23.5 ± 3.0
Insulin dose (units · day−1 · kg−1)0.61 (0.49–0.75)0.67 (0.54–0.81)
AER (μg/min)54.1 (9.8–293.4)10.8 (6.5–24.0)
Men64 (63)1,61 (51)
Current smoking32 (31)835 (31)
Low physical activity55 (54)1,197 (45)
2–3 insulin injections/day92 (91)2,510 (96)
Hypertension56 (55)595 (22)
Antihypertensive medication36 (35)225 (8)
    ACE inhibitors17 (17)136 (5)
    Calcium channel antagonists12 (12)44 (2)
    β-Blockers5 (5)25 (1)
    Diuretics6 (6)15 (1)
    Thiazide diuretics2 (2)11 (0.4)
    α-Blockers0 (0)8 (0.3)
Microalbuminuria24 (26)549 (21)
Macroalbuminuria30 (31)197 (8)
Albuminuria54 (57)746 (29)
Nonproliferative retinopathy24 (38)771 (35)
Proliferative retinopathy22 (34)210 (10)
Retinopathy46 (72)981 (45)
Autonomic neuropathy: 1)59 (58)818 (30)
Autonomic neuropathy: 2)9 (9)55 (2)
Peripheral neuropathy58 (57)569 (21)
Cardiovascular disease28 (28)211 (8)
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%).

  • *

    * Corrected A1C values according to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial method.

  • Autonomic neuropathy was defined in two ways: 1) loss of heart rate variability with an RR ratio of <1.04 and/or postural hypotension with a fall in systolic blood pressure of ≥20 mmHg or 2) loss of heart rate variability with an RR ratio of <1.04 and postural hypotension with a fall in systolic blood pressure of ≥30 mmHg.