Table 3—

Age and duration of diabetes-adjusted analyses between risk factors, microvascular complications, and mortality

sHR (95%CI)
Non-CVD causesCVD mortalityUnknown causeAll-cause mortality
n382935102
Age at baseline (years)1.94 (1.42–2.66)1.72 (1.03–2.86)2.05 (1.29–3.23)1.87 (1.44–2.45)
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)1.70 (1.32–2.19)1.54 (1.03–2.31)1.77 (1.23–2.55)1.65 (1.33–2.04)
Duration of diabetes (years)1.06 (0.80–1.42)1.60 (1.03–2.50)1.16 (0.77–1.75)1.20 (0.94–1.53)
A1C (%)*1.25 (0.99–1.58)1.42 (0.98–2.05)1.34 (0.96–1.86)1.30 (1.07–1.58)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.48 (1.22–1.80)1.43 (1.05–1.95)1.57 (1.20–2.05)1.46 (1.24–1.73)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.24 (0.99–1.54)1.34 (0.94–1.89)1.42 (1.05–1.94)1.26 (1.05–1.52)
Pulse pressure (mmHg)1.37 (1.14–1.64)1.26 (0.93–1.72)1.35 (1.04–1.76)1.34 (1.14–1.57)
Cholesterol (mmol/l)1.38 (1.12–1.71)1.14 (0.79–1.64)1.53 (1.15–2.04)1.31 (1.09–1.58)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.28 (0.99–1.66)1.37 (0.95–1.99)1.42 (1.01–1.98)1.32 (1.06–1.63)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.74 (0.58–0.96)0.61 (0.40–0.92)0.68 (0.46–1.00)0.70 (0.56–0.87)
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l)*1.34 (1.04–1.73)1.68 (1.16–2.43)1.45 (1.03–2.02)1.44 (1.17–1.78)
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.45 (1.18–1.77)1.31 (0.94–1.81)1.60 (1.21–2.11)1.40 (1.18–1.67)
Waist-to-hip ratio1.33 (1.12–1.57)1.35 (1.06–1.73)1.15 (0.84–1.56)1.34 (1.17–1.54)
BMI (kg/m2)0.90 (0.71–1.14)1.03 (0.71–1.51)0.84 (0.59–1.19)0.93 (0.76–1.14)
Insulin dose (units · day−1 · kg−1)0.83 (0.64–1.07)1.05 (0.69–1.59)0.83 (0.57–1.21)0.88 (0.70–1.09)
AER (μg/min)*1.60 (1.34–1.91)2.22 (1.70–2.91)1.63 (1.27–2.10)1.75 (1.51–2.03)
Current smoking1.34 (0.82–2.19)0.94 (0.39–2.23)1.24 (0.60–2.57)1.23 (0.80–1.88)
Low physical activity1.14 (0.60–2.15)0.83 (0.39–1.76)2.63 (1.25–5.50)1.36 (0.92–2.02)
2–3 insulin injections/day vs. 1 injection0.72 (0.29–1.80)0.39 (0.13–1.16)0.61 (0.19–2.02)0.58 (0.29–1.15)
Hypertension2.22 (1.35–3.63)3.22 (1.42–7.30)3.01 (1.46–6.20)2.44 (1.61–3.72)
Antihypertensive medication2.09 (0.95–4.62)3.99 (1.84–8.65)3.91 (1.91–7.99)3.15 (2.04–4.85)
Microalbuminuria1.40 (0.82–2.40)0.76 (0.29–2.04)1.10 (0.49–2.44)1.20 (0.75–1.92)
Macroalbuminuria3.12 (1.78–5.45)8.73 (4.03–19.0)3.31 (1.53–7.17)4.27 (2.75–6.64)
Albuminuria2.53 (1.55–4.12)4.51 (1.94–10.5)2.21 (1.11–4.42)2.94 (1.93–4.46)
Non-proliferative retinopathy0.83 (0.46–1.51)0.78 (0.28–2.19)0.84 (0.36–1.97)0.82 (0.49–1.37)
Proliferative retinopathy2.77 (1.36–5.63)7.29 (2.22–23.9)2.53 (0.94–6.81)3.58 (1.97–6.51)
Retinopathy1.73 (0.87–3.42)6.27 (1.29–30.5)1.72 (0.64–4.66)2.23 (1.21–4.12)
Autonomic neuropathy: 1)2.81 (1.35–5.83)3.61 (1.49–8.76)2.44 (1.20–4.95)2.83 (1.82–4.38)
Autonomic neuropathy: 2)2.73 (0.81–9.24)3.71 (1.23–11.2)1.36 (0.32–5.77)2.45 (1.21–4.96)
Peripheral neuropathy3.48 (1.72–7.06)2.24 (1.00–5.04)2.76 (1.34–5.71)2.83 (1.84–4.34)
Cardiovascular disease0.83 (0.29–2.40)3.20 (1.42–7.20)3.93 (1.91–8.10)2.38 (1.50–3.77)
  • *

    * Log-transformed corrected A1C values according to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial method. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed, with baseline age and diabetes duration adjustments.

  • Autonomic neuropathy was defined in two ways: 1) loss of heart rate variability with an RR ratio of <1.04 and/or postural hypotension with a fall in systolic blood pressure of ≥20 mmHg or 2) loss of heart rate variability with an RR ratio of <1.04 and postural hypotension with a fall in systolic BP of ≥30 mmHg.