Table 1—

Baseline characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes of study participants randomized to ILS or placebo

ILS
Placebo
MenWomenMenWomen
n (%)345 (32)734 (68)*335 (31)747 (69)*
Age (years)54.0 ± 17.447.8 ± 14.5*53.1 ± 15.248.3 ± 12.9*
Race/ethnic group (n [%])
    White199 (57.7)381 (51.9)184 (54.9)402 (53.8)
    African American50 (14.5)154 (21.0)57 (17.0)163 (21.8)
    Hispanic58 (16.8)120 (16.3)57 (17.0)111 (14.9)
    American Indian31 (9.0)26 (3.5)7 (2.1)52 (7.0)
    Asian7 (2.0)53 (7.2)30 (9.0)19 (2.5)
Cardiometabolic risk factors
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.9 ± 0.75.8 ± 0.6*6.0 ± 0.75.8 ± 0.6*
    TG (mmol/l)2.01 ± 1.451.76 ± 1.29*2.01 ± 1.321.94 ± 1.36
    HDL (mmol/l)1.01 ± 0.71.22 ± 0.41*1.01 ± 0.261.16 ± 0.39*
    BP (mmHg)124/80 ± 18/13121/78 ± 20/13*125/80 ± 18/13121/77 ± 20/13*
    Waist circumference (cm)106.5 ± 17.7101.8 ± 19.0*105.9 ± 17.2103.0 ± 20.4*
    BMI (kg/m2)30.9 ± 6.233.6 ± 8.6*30.9 ± 7.134.1 ± 9.6*
Activity
    Leisure(MET/h)13.8 ± 22.48.1 ± 12.8*15.6 ± 24.18.1 ± 14.8*
    Recreational (MET/h)70.5 ± 57.057.4 ± 52.3*70.9 ± 53.655.5 ± 48.8*
Caloric intake (kcal)2,065 ± 1,1491,789 ± 1,041*1,990 ± 1,1781,851 ± 1,019*
% on meds for TG or BP22.017.821.215.7
% women on HRT24.420.6
Diabetes risk factors
    2-h glucose (mmol/l)9.0 ± 1.68.9 ± 1.59.0 ± 1.69.0 ± 1.6
A1C (%)5.9 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.75.9 ± 0.6
Insulin (pmol/l)138 ± 102144 ± 108144 ± 90144 ± 102
Index of insulin secretion
    CIR0.49 ± 0.40.56 ± 0.41*0.52 ± 0.490.57 ± 0.44*
Index of insulin action
HOMA-IR6.0 ± 4.66.0 ± 4.96.4 ± 4.26.2 ± 4.7
  • Data are medians ± interquartile range unless otherwise indicated. Twenty Pacific Islanders were included in the “Asian” group. Physical activity data are based on responses to the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. MET-hours represent the average amount of time engaged in specified physical activities multiplied by the MET value of each activity. BP, blood pressure; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; TG, triglyceride.

  • *

    * P < 0.01, men vs. women;

  • P < 0.05, men vs. women.