Table 1—

Characteristics of youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic control youth

VariablesType 2 diabetesControlP value
n7979
Age (years)15.7 ± 2.814.4 ± 2.80.003
Sex (% male)29.138.90.1
Race/Ethnicity (%)<0.0001
    Non-Hispanic white27.955.8
    African-American54.427.9
    Hispanic17.716.3
BMI (kg/m2)34.7 ± 7.524.0 ± 6.8<0.0001
BMI Z score2.1 ± 0.70.8 ± 1.1<0.0001
Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero (% yes)30.46.3<0.0001
Exposure to maternal obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) in utero (% yes)57.027.4<0.0001
Maternal education (%)0.009
    Less than high school13.94.7
    High school and more86.194.2
Household income (%)<0.0001
    <$25,00049.421.6
    >$25,00050.677.9
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (% yes)11.411.10.9
Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (% yes)1.2714.70.001
Birth weight (g)3,218 ± 6543,288 ± 6200.4
Breast-feeding (% yes)30.465.8<0.0001
Paternal history of diabetes (% yes)29.16.3<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD unless indicated otherwise.