Table 2—

Proportion of type 2 diabetes in youth attributable to intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and overweight/obesity

Exposure categoryCase patientsControl youthOR (95% CI)*PAF
Not exposed to either maternal diabetes or maternal obesity36.768.91Unexposed
Exposed to maternal diabetes only6.33.73.9 (1.1–14.5)4.7
Exposed to maternal obesity only32.924.72.5 (1.3–5.0)19.7
Exposed to both maternal diabetes and maternal obesity24.12.619.2 (6.1–60.8)22.8
Overall proportion of type 2 diabetes in youth attributable to in utero exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity47.2 (30.9–63.5)
  • Data are % unless indicated otherwise.

  • *

    * ORs for the association between mutually exclusive exposure categories and case/control status, additionally adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity.

  • PAFs were calculated using the formula: Pi [(ORi − 1)/ORi], where Pi is the proportion of case patients in each exposure category and ORi is the adjusted OR comparing each exposed group with the unexposed reference category (i = 0).

  • Calculated using the formula: Σ √Pi [(ORi − 1)/ORi].