Table 1

Baseline characteristics of diabetes patients with or without DR

CharacteristicsDiabetes (N = 348)Retinopathy status
Yes (n = 107)No (n = 241)P
Age at baseline (years)56 (40–67)57 (42–68)55 (39–67)0.43
Male56.055.156.40.82
Diabetes duration (years)7.5 (5.5–10)9.0 (7.5–12)6.0 (4.5–8.5)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)28.6 (26.3–31.2)29.1 (26.9–31.3)28.3 (25.7–31.0)0.26
Systolic BP (mmHg)132 (125–143)143 (129–148)126 (120–145)<0.001
Smoking status44.542.145.60.53
Current alcohol intake39.938.340.70.68
Intensive glucose treatment45.454.241.40.028
BP treatment42.244.941.10.34
Use of lipid-lowering medication39.743.937.80.18
Laboratory findings
 HbA1c (%)7.8 (7.2–8.6)8.4 (7.8–9.6)7.1 (6.5–8.2)<0.001
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)62 (55–70)68 (62–81)54 (48–66)<0.001
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L)89 (75–98)90 (77–99)87 (74–97)0.22
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.6 (3.8–5.4)4.8 (4.0–5.5)4.4 (3.7–5.2)0.046
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.4 (0.9–1.8)1.5 (1.0–1.9)1.4 (0.9–1.7)0.56
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.5 (1.9–2.9)2.6 (2.0–2.9)2.5 (1.9–2.8)0.67
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.6 (1.4–1.7)1.5 (1.3–1.7)0.81
 hs-CRP (mg/dL)0.96 (0.48–2.19)1.42 (0.66–3.12)0.76 (0.39–1.78)<0.001
 MBL (μg/L)2,892 (2,320–3,387)3,270 (2,950–3,800)2,560 (2,100–3,110)<0.0001
Any DR30.7
 PDR7.2
 DME7.5
 VTDR11.2
Any DR in type 1 diabetes (n = 98)31.6
 PDR8.2
 DME9.2
 VTDR12.2
Any DR in type 2 diabetes (n = 250)30.4
 PDR6.8
 DME6.8
 VTDR10.8
  • Results are expressed as percentages or as medians (IQR).