Table 2—

Pooled RR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and composite end point of CVD hospitalizations or CVD mortality according to different exclusion criteria

All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
CVD hospitalizations or CVD mortality
No. of studiesRR (95% CI)No. of studiesRR (95% CI)No. of studiesRR (95% CI)
All studies101.19 (0.88–1.62)61.29 (0.73–2.27)71.43 (1.10–1.85)
Studies that controlled for important confounding factors*61.36 (0.93–2.04)51.63 (1.11–2.39)61.55 (1.28–1.87)
Studies that controlled for important confounding factors41.34 (0.73–2.47)31.72 (0.93–3.20)41.50 (1.25–1.78)
  • * Studies that did not control for duration of diabetes excluded. For all-cause mortality, excluding the studies by Gulliford (12), Johnson (14), and Fisman (21). For CVD mortality and the composite end point of CVD hospitalizations or CVD mortality, excluding the study by Johnson (23).

  • Studies that did not control of duration of diabetes or previous CVD excluded. For all-cause mortality, excluding the studies by Gulliford (12), Johnson (14), Olsson (16), Bruno (20), and Fisman (21). For CVD mortality and the composite end point of CVD hospitalizations or CVD mortality, excluding the studies by Olsson (16), Johnson (23), and Bruno (20).