Table 2—

Characteristics according to quintile categories of dietary pattern scores

Age (years)BMI (kg/m2)Smoking (current)Alcohol use (current)Physical activity*Parental history of diabetes
Men
    Healthy dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)58.6 ± 6.123.6 ± 2.951.177.88.610.2
Quintile 5 (high)65.2 ± 6.423.4 ± 2.521.069.122.411.0
Ptrend<0.010.60<0.01<0.01<0.010.73
    High-fat dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)63.3 ± 6.523.5 ± 2.828.972.815.79.3
Quintile 5 (high)60.3 ± 7.023.6 ± 2.935.674.714.412.2
Ptrend<0.010.30<0.010.110.550.17
    Seafood dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)61.7 ± 6.823.3 ± 2.732.664.815.011.4
Quintile 5 (high)62.4 ± 6.923.8 ± 3.034.380.115.612.3
Ptrend0.14<0.010.62<0.010.780.53
    Westernized breakfast pattern
Quintile 1 (low)62.5 ± 6.423.7 ± 2.829.879.215.611.4
Quintile 5 (high)62.2 ± 7.023.6 ± 2.733.570.415.911.1
Ptrend0.360.090.11<0.010.630.76
Women
    Healthy dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)58.7 ± 6.322.6 ± 3.314.533.97.315.2
Quintile 5 (high)64.3 ± 6.622.6 ± 3.02.023.020.512.4
Ptrend<0.010.85<0.01<0.01<0.010.02
    High-fat dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)63.4 ± 6.422.4 ± 2.95.025.216.414.0
Quintile 5 (high)60.0 ± 6.922.7 ± 3.08.527.811.115.5
Ptrend<0.010.03<0.010.06<0.010.14
    Seafood dietary pattern
Quintile 1 (low)60.6 ± 6.522.3 ± 3.05.623.213.314.9
Quintile 5 (high)63.3 ± 7.122.9 ± 3.16.129.316.311.7
Ptrend<0.01<0.010.31<0.010.040.02
    Westernized breakfast pattern
Quintile 1 (low)62.8 ± 6.622.8 ± 3.35.725.310.912.4
Quintile 5 (high)60.8 ± 6.922.1 ± 2.87.531.016.413.6
Ptrend<0.01<0.010.040.02<0.010.38
  • Data are means ± SD or %.

  • * High recreational physical activity of ≥21 MET h/week.

  • Based on the Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test for categorical variables and linear regression analysis for continuous variables, assigning ordinal numbers 0–4 to quintile categories of each dietary pattern.