Table 1—

Weighted frequency distribution of sociodemographic and health status factors, the proportion of each group exceeding three A1C thresholds, and the mean difference across groups

Frequency distributionProportion exceeding A1C threshold
>9%>8%>7%
Overall population100.018.432.852.6
Sociodemographic factors
    Age
        20–44 years17.432.745.763.5
        45–54 years21.523.737.952.3
        55–64 years23.216.432.851.1
        65–74 years21.913.428.055.5
        75+ years16.05.818.239.4
        Mean difference7.8 (4.4–13.9)7.5 (3.7–15.1)5.7 (2.9.–11.4)
    Race/ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white62.713.528.748.4
        Non-Hispanic black15.225.638.860.7
        Mexican American7.026.841.961.4
        Other race, other Hispanic, multiracial15.227.839.257.8
        Mean difference7.4 (4.7–11.9)6.4 (3.5,11.8)6.6 (3.4–12.8)
    Income-to-poverty ratio
        ≤0.810.732.440.258.0
        0.8–236.114.929.551.1
        2–430.617.534.551.2
        >422.615.127.151.1
        Mean difference5.4 (3.0–9.8)4.5 (1.7–12.2)2.5 (0.7–9.0)*
    Insurance status
        Uninsured10.338.050.659.4
        Private insurance39.921.334.357.7
        Public or government insurance32.012.628.445.7
        Both public and private insurance17.911.525.949.3
        Mean difference8.8 (5.2–15.0)7.6 (3.7–15.6)5.6 (2.1–14.9)
    Sex
        Male50.520.232.854.8
        Female49.516.732.750.3
        Mean difference1.8 (0.3–9.7)0.0 (0.0–)2.2 (0.4–11.3)
    Education
        <High school36.421.434.754.8
        High school Graduate25.115.933.248.2
        >High school38.617.330.653.3
        Mean difference2.2 (0.4–12.0)1.5 (0.1–16.3)2.4 (0.4–15.8)
Health status factors
    Diabetes medication
        Use of insulin26.127.548.371.4
        Use of oral agents only55.516.029.252.0
        No use of medications18.413.021.527.7
        Mean difference5.7 (2.3–13.8)10.1 (6.5–15.7)*14.7 (10.8–20.1)
    Diabetes duration
        <5 years35.415.929.146.7
        5 to <10 years20.825.539.858.4
        10 to <15 years13.522.339.862.8
        15 to <20 years7.523.638.262.6
        ≥20 years22.812.527.048.4
        Mean difference4.9 (2.2–11.1)5.8 (2.7–12.3)7.2 (4.2–12.3)
    Weight status
        Underweight or normal weight16.625.036.654.6
        Overweight31.519.128.650.8
        Obese38.117.038.854.9
        Severely obese13.913.822.553.7
        Mean difference3.3 (1.0–11.3)6.1 (3.3–11.3)1.8 (0.1–27.9)
    Self-reported health
        Excellent or very good18.89.825.646.9
        Good36.620.031.449.7
        Fair or poor44.620.836.957.4
        Mean difference4.2 (2.0–9.1)4.2 (1.3–14.0)4.5 (1.4–14.3)
    Number of prescription medications
        0–119.425.639.555.5
        2–327.417.031.052.2
        4–629.716.328.649.0
        ≥723.516.734.354.7
        Mean difference3.1 (0.8–11.9)3.5 (1.0–12.6)2.2 (0.4–11.3)
    Number of health care interactions
        0–110.223.736.048.8
        2–322.424.037.961.1
        4–939.113.630.150.5
        ≥10–1228.319.031.450.5
        Mean difference4.1 (1.5–11.1)3.1 (0.4,22.0)4.1 (1.5–11.7)
    Hospitalization in last year
        Yes24.421.635.154.8
        No75.617.432.051.9
        Mean difference2.1 (0.1–34.5)1.6 (0.1–25.3)1.4 (0.0–)
  • Data are % or mean difference (95% confidence limits). Mean difference (expressed in percentage points) indicates absolute differences between the proportion of the group and that of the total population exceeding the threshold.

  • * P < 0.05 for comparison to mean difference estimate for A1C >9%.

  • Calculation of upper confidence limit results in value above theoretical maximum.

  • P < 0.001 for comparison to mean difference estimate for A1C >9%.