Table 2—

Distribution of characteristics and comorbidities in case and control subjects in the nested case-control analysis

CharacteristicsDiabetic case subjectsControl subjectsAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
n106424
Age (years)
    40–5911 (10.4)39 (9.2)
    60–7966 (62.3)266 (62.7)
    ≥8029 (27.3)119 (28.1)
Sex
    Male65 (61.3)260 (61.3)
    Female41 (38.7)164 (38.7)
Smoking status
    Nonsmoker56 (52.8)243 (57.3)1.00 (referent)
    Current smoker9 (8.5)47 (11.1)0.94 (0.39–2.27)
BMI (kg/m2)
    <2516 (15.1)141 (33.3)1.00 (referent)
    25–29.942 (39.6)135 (31.8)2.52 (1.23–5.17)
    ≥3028 (26.4)46 (10.9)3.80 (1.74–8.30)
Comorbidities
    IHD50 (27.2)163 (22.2)1.30 (0.69–2.46)
    Hypertension58 (54.7)144 (34.0)1.49 (0.79–2.79)
    Dyslipidemia18 (17.0)43 (10.1)1.40 (0.63–3.11)
Prior drug use
    β-Blockers26 (24.5)55 (13.0)1.44 (0.70–2.93)
    Diuretics47 (44.3)88 (20.8)2.79 (1.41–5.53)
    Systemic steroids8 (7.6)12 (2.8)6.66 (2.04–21.72)
  • Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Adjusted for covariates in this Table.

  • Most recent drug prescription within 3 months before the index date and five or more prescriptions in total.