Table 1—

Demographic, lifestyle, clinical, and dietary characteristics of 5,011 participants in MESA stratified by type 2 diabetes status

Free of type 2 diabetes through follow-upType 2 diabetes diagnosed at one of three follow-up examsP
n4,598413
Age (years)61.7 ± 0.261.5 ± 0.50.69
Sex (% male)47.349.40.41
Race/ethnicity (%)<0.001
    White44.433.2
    Black19.627.6
    Hispanic23.727.9
    Chinese12.311.4
High school degree (%)85.079.90.006
Active leisure activity (MET min/week)2,522 ± 452,345 ± 1510.26
Inactive leisure activity (MET min/week)1,664 ± 161,815 ± 550.008
Current smokers (%)14.313.80.79
Weekly supplement use (%)58.356.40.54
BMI (kg/m2)27.6 ± 0.131.2 ± 0.3<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)96.1 ± 0.2106 ± 0.7<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125 ± 0.3130 ± 1<0.001
LDL cholesterol118 ± 0.5117 ± 20.52
HDL cholesterol52.1 ± 0.246.6 ± 0.7<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl)125 ± 1149 ± 4<0.001
Fasting insulin (mg/dl)6.1 ± 0.19.7 ± 0.2<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)88.3 ± 0.1103 ± 0.5<0.001
Total energy intake (kcal)1,676 ± 111,802 ± 380.001
Protein (% of total kcal)16 ± 0.116 ± 0.20.49
Total fat (% of total kcal)34 ± 0.135 ± 0.30.01
Saturated fat (% of total kcal)11 ± 0.0411 ± 0.10.44
Monounsaturated fat (% of total kcal)12 ± 0.0413 ± 0.10.01
Polyunsaturated fat (% of total kcal)7.7 ± 0.038.0 ± 0.10.07
Carbohydrate (% of total kcal)50 ± 0.149 ± 0.40.06
Fiber (g/day)18 ± 0.118 ± 0.30.36
Whole grains (servings/day)0.60 ± 0.010.54 ± 0.030.02
Vegetables (servings/day)*2.3 ± 0.022.2 ± 0.070.25
Nuts/seeds (servings/day)0.29 ± 0.010.25 ± 0.020.04
Low-fat dairy (servings/day)0.79 ± 0.020.68 ± 0.050.07
Coffee (servings/day)1.2 ± 0.021.1 ± 0.10.17
Red meat (servings/day)0.38 ± 0.0040.39 ± 0.010.22
Processed meat (servings/day)0.17 ± 0.0040.18 ± 0.010.34
High-fat dairy (servings/day)0.50 ± 0.010.57 ± 0.030.05
White potatoes (servings/day)0.20 ± 0.0030.20 ± 0.010.84
Regular soda (servings/day)§0.40 ± 0.010.45 ± 0.040.22
  • Data are means ± SE. Except for total energy intake, dietary variables are adjusted for energy intake (kcal/day). P for difference by F test from linear regression (continuous variables) or χ2 (categorical variables).

  • * Vegetables include green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, dark-yellow vegetables, other vegetables, and tomatoes (food groups used in the principal components analyses were combined).

  • High-fat dairy combines whole milk and high-fat cheese/cream sauces (food groups used in the principal components analyses were combined).

  • White potatoes include white potatoes (baked, boiled, or mashed) and fried potatoes (food groups used in the principal components analyses were combined).

  • § Regular soda includes nondiet soda, sweetened mineral water, and nonalcoholic beer (participant response to single question listing these three beverages).