Table 2—

Risk of type 2 diabetes according to two dietary patterns derived by principal components analysis and one a priori–defined low-risk food pattern in 5,011 men and women from MESA

Incident diabetes per person-years of follow-upQuintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5PtrendHR (95% CI) per 1-score SD*
“Beans, tomatoes, and refined grains”78/4,31168/3,39475/4,43383/4,446109/4,344
    Model 11.000.92 (0.66–1.28)1.02 (0.74–1.41)1.07 (0.77–1.48)1.25 (0.87–1.81)0.0041.18 (1.06–1.32)
    Model 21.000.92 (0.66–1.28)1.02 (0.74–1.41)1.06 (0.76–1.47)1.23 (0.85–1.78)0.0041.18 (1.06–1.32)
    Model 3§1.000.99 (0.71–1.38)1.09 (0.78–1.51)1.09 (0.78–1.52)1.28 (0.88–1.84)0.0031.19 (1.06–1.33)
“Whole grains and fruit”108/4,32882/4,34176/4,43576/4,41071/4,414
    Model 11.000.76 (0.56–1.02)0.71 (0.52–0.97)0.71 (0.52–0.98)0.63 (0.45–0.89)0.0020.84 (0.75–0.94)
    Model 21.000.76 (0.56–1.02)0.73 (0.53–1.99)0.72 (0.52–0.99)0.66 (0.47–0.93)0.0050.85 (0.76–0.95)
    Model 3§1.000.74 (0.54–1.99)0.76 (0.55–1.03)0.77 (0.56–1.07)0.73 (0.52–1.04)0.050.89 (0.79–1.00)
A priori, low-risk food pattern106/4,26384/4,401101/4,33668/4,45154/4,477
    Model 11.000.88 (0.65–1.20)1.16 (0.86–1.57)0.79 (0.57–1.10)0.59 (0.42–0.84)0.020.88 (0.80–0.98)
    Model 21.000.93 (0.69–1.26)1.22 (0.90–1.66)0.83 (0.60–1.16)0.62 (0.44–0.88)0.040.87 (0.81–0.99)
    Model 3§1.001.00 (0.73–1.33)1.31 (0.94–1.74)0.92 (0.66–1.29)0.72 (0.51–1.03)0.180.93 (0.84–1.03)
  • Data are n or HR (95% CI). Ptrend calculated with dietary pattern modeled as a continuous variable (score units).

  • * For incident type 2 diabetes per 1-SD change in dietary pattern score. For the “beans, tomatoes, and refined grains” and “whole grains and fruit” dietary patterns, SD was 1.00. For the a priori, low-risk food pattern, SD was 3.8.

  • For incident type 2 diabetes with quintile 1 as the reference category adjusted for energy intake (kcal/day), study center (California, Minnesota, Maryland, New York, Illinois, or North Carolina), age (years), sex, and race/ethnicity (white, black, Chinese, or Hispanic).

  • For incident type 2 diabetes with quintile 1 as the reference category adjusted for the above plus education (less than a high school degree, a high school degree, and more than a high school degree), active leisure-time physical activity (MET minutes per week), inactive leisure-time physical activity (MET minutes per week), current smoking status (yes or no), smoking pack-years, and current weekly supplement use (yes or no).

  • § For incident type 2 diabetes with quintile 1 as the reference category adjusted for the above plus waist circumference (cm).

  • The a priori, low type 2 diabetes–risk food pattern is the sum of servings per day from 10 food groups (standardized to mean 0.00, SD 1.00). Positive (+1) weights were assigned to whole grains, fruit, vegetables, nuts/seeds, low-fat dairy, and coffee. Negative (−1) weights were assigned to red meat, processed meat, high-fat dairy, and regular soda.