Table 2—

Clinical and biochemical characteristics in the total study group and when based on 1998 WHO criteria for categories of glycemia

TotalCategory of glycemia
P value*
NormoglycemiaIFGIGTDiabetes
n1,025873166446
Sex (men/women)210/815169/7049/713/519/370.04
Age (years)46.9 ± 18.945.4 ± 18.748.6 ± 21.559.9 ± 16.657.2 ± 15.9<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)25.2 ± 6.124.95 ± 5.924.98 ± 5.427.96 ± 7.327.90 ± 8.3<0.001
Waist (cm)85.6 ± 13.284.6 ± 12.687.2 ± 16.894.0 ± 15.294.1 ± 14.2<0.001
Hip (cm)100.7 ± 13.1100.2 ± 12.999.4 ± 10.5106.6 ± 14.7103.8 ± 12.8<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.85 ± 0.070.85 ± 0.070.87 ± 0.100.88 ± 0.070.91 ± 0.07<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)126.3 ± 18.4125.3 ± 17.9133.8 ± 17.5131.4 ± 18.9137.7 ± 21.5<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.0 ± 11.779.4 ± 11.582.3 ± 11.283.9 ± 12.485.9 ± 12.9<0.001
Familial diabetes (%)8.98.418.86.313.00.2
Urban living (%)24.723.643.823.432.60.4
Sedentary activity (%):
    Occupational19.818.118.839.130.40.004
    Leisure29.527.731.342.250.00.003
Tobacco smoking (%)12.514.250.015.617.40.001
Alcohol (%)13.715.237.522.230.40.003
BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (%)42.239.743.863.560.50.001
Waist ≥94 cm (men)/≥80 cm (women) (%)53.952.050.071.475.0<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio >1.0 men/>0.85 women (%)36.734.631.349.270.5<0.001
Hypertension (%)26.523.737.546.947.80.001
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    0 min4.9 ± 1.64.6 ± 0.66.4 ± 0.35.4 ± 0.69.5 ± 4.9<0.001
    120 min6.2 ± 2.55.6 ± 0.96.8 ± 0.48.7 ± 0.815.4 ± 5.8<0.001
Serum lipids (mmol/l)
    Total cholesterol4.1 ± 1.14.0 ± 1.04.5 ± 1.44.3 ± 1.15.0 ± 1.2<0.001
    Total triglyceride1.1 ± 1.10.98 ± 0.61.23 ± 0.81.26 ± 0.61.96 ± 1.8<0.001
    HDL cholesterol1.23 ± 0.391.22 ± 0.41.30 ± 0.51.23 ± 0.41.33 ± 0.50.3
    LDL cholesterol2.4 ± 0.072.3 ± 0.82.6 ± 0.92.5 ± 0.92.8 ± 1.10.003
Serum uric acid (μmol/l)0.27 ± 0.070.27 ± 0.070.32 ± 0.090.31 ± 0.080.29 ± 0.07<0.001
  • Data are means±SD unless otherwise indicated. Total study group n = 1,025; n = 999 for application of WHO criteria.

  • * P values for comparison between normoglycemia versus IFG versus IGT versus diabetes (analysis of variance or χ2 method).

  • Significant difference using Scheffe's multiple range test versus normoglycemia.