Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of participants, by incident retinopathy status

CharacteristicsAllNo retinopathyRetinopathyP value
n645371274
Age (years)13.5 (12.8–14.9)13.7 (12.9–15.1)13.3 (12.6–14.6)<0.001
Sex (% male)45.645.845.30.886
Diabetes duration (years)4.7 (3.2–7.4)3.9 (2.8–6.5)5.6 (3.9–8.9)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)21.0 (19.2–23.5)21.4 (19.6–23.9)20.6 (18.8–23.0)0.001
Mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg)83.3 (80.0–88.3)83.3 (80–88.3)83.3 (80–88.3)0.411
A1C (%)8.4 (7.7–9.3)8.2 (7.5–9.1)8.6 (7.8–9.5)0.005
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)4.4 (3.3–6.9)4.5 (3.2–8.0)4.2 (3.4–6.2)0.348
Microalbuminuria present2.53.21.40.269
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 (3.7–4.8)4.2 (3.8–4.8)4.3 (3.7–4.8)0.866
Tanner pubertal stage0.038
    15.74.27.5
    213.311.016.2
    314.212.915.8
    425.325.624.9
    541.546.335.6
Retinal arteriolar caliber (μm)170.51 (157.35–182.86)165.98 (153.07–178.67)176.11 (163.50–187.43)<0.001
Retinal venular caliber (μm)246.60 (232.22–263.53)245.41 (231.19–260.70)249.86 (233.76–267.12)0.019
  • Data are medians (interquartile range) or proportions. P values relate to Wilcoxon rank-sum or χ2 test for difference between those who did and did not develop retinopathy during follow-up.