Table 2—

Association of retinal vascular caliber and incident diabetic retinopathy

nIncidence (per 100 person-years)Model 1 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 2 HR (95% CI)P value
Retinal arteriolar caliber
    Per SD increase, 18.90 μm645274 cases1.43 (1.23–1.66)<0.0011.46 (1.22–1.74)<0.001
    Quartile 1, ≤157.2 μm1618.5ReferenceReference
    Quartile 2, 157.3–170.5 μm16113.51.72 (1.15–2.58)0.0091.75 (1.11–2.75)0.017
    Quartile 3, 170.51–182.85 μm16015.31.94 (1.29–2.92)0.0011.82 (1.15–2.89)0.010
    Quartile 4, ≥182.86 μm16322.53.13 (2.01–4.86)<0.0013.44 (2.08–5.66)<0.001
    Ptrend<0.001<0.001
Retinal venular caliber
    Per SD increase, 22.63 μm643272 cases0.89 (0.77–1.04)0.1340.82 (0.69–0.98)0.028
    Quartile 1, <232.2 μm16012.8ReferenceReference
    Quartile 2, 232.2–246.59 μm16111.70.81 (0.56–1.17)0.2550.75 (0.50–1.13)0.165
    Quartile 3, 246.6–263.5 μm16116.30.98 (0.68–1.42)0.9220.91 (0.60–1.37)0.640
    Quartile 4, ≥263.5 μm16118.30.94 (0.63–1.40)0.7570.78 (0.50–1.23)0.281
    Ptrend0.9750.457
  • Model 1 HR adjusted for age and sex. Model 2 HR adjusted for model 1 covariates plus diabetes duration, A1C, mean arterial blood pressure, Tanner pubertal stage, BMI, and total cholesterol. Models for arteriolar caliber were adjusted for venular caliber and vice versa.