Table 3—

Association of retinal arteriolar caliber and incident diabetic retinopathy in young females and male patients

Retinal arteriolar calibernIncidence (per 100 person-years)Model 1 HR (95% CI)P valueModel 2 HR (95% CI)P value
Female35114.6
    Per SD increase, 18.7 μm1.61 (1.32–1.96)<0.0011.82 (1.45–2.28)<0.001
    Quartile 1, <160.0 μm878.33ReferenceReference
    Quartile 2, 160.0–172.1 μm8811.221.45 (0.83–2.54)0.1871.39 (0.77–2.54)0.276
    Quartile 3, 172.2–183.5 μm8816.582.40 (1.39–4.17)0.0022.39 (1.30–4.39)0.005
    Quartile 4, >183.5 μm8823.513.80 (2.12–6.81)<0.0014.39 (2.34–8.23)<0.001
    Ptrend<0.001<0.001
Male29414.9
    Per SD increase, 19.0 μm1.25 (1.00–1.56)0.0501.12 (0.85–1.48)0.424
    Quartile 1, <154.8 μm738.36ReferenceReference
    Quartile 2, 154.8–168.8 μm7416.322.01 (1.11–3.65)0.0212.12 (1.04–4.31)0.039
    Quartile 3, 168.9–181.7 μm7214.841.76 (0.95–3.24)0.0721.71 (0.83–3.53)0.148
    Quartile 4, >181.7 μm7520.762.42 (1.25–4.67)0.0082.44 (1.09–5.45)0.030
    Ptrend0.0260.088
  • Model 1 HR adjusted for age. Model 2 HR adjusted for age, diabetes duration, A1C, mean arterial blood pressure, Tanner pubertal stage, BMI, and total cholesterol. Models for arteriolar caliber were adjusted for venular caliber and vice versa.