Table 1—

Characteristics of subjects (n = 1,496) with no diabetes or hypertension at baseline who developed diabetes, hypertension, or both

Status at follow-upNo diabetes or hypertensionDiabetes onlyHypertension onlyDiabetes and hypertension
n1,2016719434
Age (years)42 ± 1146.1 ± 12.7*50.0 ± 11.1**47.8 ± 10.4*
Male (%)43.650.7*52.1*64.7*
Diabetes in either parent (%)16.220.917.027.3
Hypertension in either parent (%)28.820.930.644.1
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 ± 3.225.9 ± 4.3**24.6 ± 3.3**26.2 ± 3.2**
Waist circumference (cm)76.0 ± 8.983.1 ± 10.4**80.1 ± 8.7**84.1 ± 9.9**
Waist-to-hip ratio0.82 ± 0.080.87 ± 0.07**0.85 ± 0.07**0.88 ± 0.06**
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)110 ± 11114 ± 13*123 ± 11**122 ± 10**
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70 ± 873 ± 977 ± 8**78 ± 8**
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.0 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.6**5.2 ± 0.4**5.3 ± 0.4**
OGTT 2-h glucose (mmol/l)5.9 ± 1.57.8 ± 1.6**6.2 ± 1.47.2 ± 1.6**
HOMA-IR1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.5 (1.0–2.4)**1.2 (0.8–1.7)1.6 (1.1–2.4)
Fasting insulin (mIU/l)4.3 (2.9–6.4)6.3 (3.9–9.9)*5.1 (3.6–7.1)6.7 (4.4–10.5)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.95.3 ± 1.1*5.2 ± 1.2**5.1 ± 0.9
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.1 ± 0.83.4 ± 1.1*3.3 ± 0.9*3.3 ± 0.7
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3**1.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.3**
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.0 ± 0.61.5 ± 0.9**1.3 ± 0.8**1.6 ± 0.9**
Tobacco use (%)22.423.927.332.4
Regular alcohol consumption (%)§11.410.414.520.6
Physically active (%)34.528.437.123.5
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or percent. Dunnett t test or χ2 test were used, as appropriate.

  • * P < 0.01;

  • ** P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.05 compared with subjects with no diabetes or hypertension.

  • Ever been a smoker.

  • § At least once a week.

  • Exercising at least once a week in the past month. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or if the subject had been previously diagnosed with hypertension and was taking antihypertensive medications. Diabetes was defined as having a fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl), having a 2-h OGTT plasma glucose concentration ≥11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), or if the subject had been previously diagnosed with diabetes and was receiving medications for diabetes. HOMA-IR was calculated as follows: [fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) × fasting insulin (mIU/l)]/22.5. To convert mmol/l to mg/dl, divide by 0.056 for glucose, 0.026 for cholesterol, and 0.011 for triglycerides. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.