Table 15—

Plasma blood glucose and A1C goals for type 1 diabetes by age-group

Values by age (years)Plasma blood glucose goal range (mg/dl)
A1CRationale
Before mealsBedtime/overnight
Toddlers and preschoolers (0–6)100–180110–200<8.5% (but >7.5%)High risk and vulnerability to hypoglycemia
School age (6–12)90–180100–180<8%Risks of hypoglycemia and relatively low risk of complications prior to puberty
  • Risk of severe hypoglycemia

  • Developmental and psychological issues

  • A lower goal (<7.0%) is reasonable if it can be achieved without excessive hypoglycemia

Adolescents and young adults (13–19)90–13090–150<7.5%
Key concepts in setting glycemic goals:
  • Goals should be individualized and lower goals may be reasonable based on benefit-risk assessment.

  • Blood glucose goals should be higher than those listed above in children with frequent hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia unawareness.

  • Postprandial blood glucose values should be measured when there is a discrepancy between pre-prandial blood glucose values and A1C levels.