Table 1

Standardized difference of baseline demographic characteristics and comorbidities for patients with HCE and matched control subjects

HCEControl subjectsStandardized difference
n4,5179,034
Age at diabetes date (years), mean ± SD71.01 ± 7.3870.95 ± 7.350.008
Age at index date (years), mean ± SD75.51 ± 6.7875.39 ± 6.620.018
Age at index date (years)
 65–742,345 (51.91)4,720 (52.25)0.007
 75–841,720 (38.08)3,476 (38.48)0.008
 ≥85452 (10.01)838 (9.28)0.025
Duration from diabetes date to index date (years), mean ± SD/median (IQR)4.50 ± 3.36/4.34 (5.92)4.44 ± 3.33/4.20 (6.06)0.018
Sex
 Male2,223 (49.21)4,424 (48.97)0.005
 Female2,294 (50.79)4,610 (51.03)0.005
Baseline comorbidity
 HTN2,620 (58.00)5,193 (57.48)0.011
 Renal disease204 (4.52)390 (4.32)0.010
 CAD873 (19.33)1,672 (18.51)0.021
 Stroke748 (16.56)1,443 (15.97)0.016
 Cancer343 (7.59)650 (7.20)0.015
 COPD713 (15.78)1,361 (15.07)0.020
 CHF268 (5.93)496 (5.49)0.019
 Liver disease344 (7.62)661 (7.32)0.011
Monthly income (USD)
 <5012,959 (65.51)5,993 (66.34)0.018
 501–7911,483 (32.83)2,905 (32.16)0.014
 >79175 (1.66)136 (1.51)0.012
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range [IQR]), or n (%). USD calculated as 1 USD = 31.6 New Taiwan dollars.