Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 691 CHS participants with diabetes by serum cystatin C–estimated GFR

Estimated GFR
≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2
n467224
Cystatin C–estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)80 ± 1645 ± 10
Medical history
    Age (years)77 ± 479 ± 5
    Sex (female)284 (61)116 (52)
    Race (African American)97 (21)37 (17)
    Duration of diabetes
        <4 years189 (41)88 (39)
        4–7 years60 (13)21 (9)
        ≥7 years218 (47)115 (51)
    CVD150 (32)101 (45)
        Coronary heart disease124 (27)83 (37)
        Stroke31 (7)24 (11)
        Transient ischemic attack20 (4)15 (7)
    Congestive heart failure43 (9)49 (22)
    Smoking232 (50)122 (56)
    Hypertension280 (60)156 (70)
Medications
    Hypoglycemic medications
        None235 (50)118 (53)
        Oral medications only183 (39)65 (29)
        Insulin49 (11)41 (18)
    Antihypertensive medications321 (69)186 (83)
        ACE inhibitors94 (20)78 (35)
    Lipid-lowering medications61 (13)40 (18)
Physical measurements
    BMI (kg/m2)28.2 ± 5.028.9 ± 4.9
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)137 ± 20139 ± 20
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)69 ± 1268 ± 11
Laboratory measurements
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)201 ± 41198 ± 43
    C-reactive protein (mg/l)3.31 (1.48–6.64)4.18 (2.00–7.88)
    MDRD estimated GFR
        Mean ± SD (ml/min per 1.73 m2)91 ± 2259 ± 17
        <60 ml/min per 1.73 m227 (6)124 (55)
    Change in cystatin C–estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2/year)−1.25 ± 2.27−2.85 ± 2.71
    Urine ACR (mg/g)
        Median (interquartile range) (mg/g)*11 (6–32)24 (10–111)
        ≥30 mg/g124 (27)105 (47)
  • Data are means ±SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).