Table 2

Associations of kidney disease with mortality among 691 CHS participants with diabetes

Total mortality
CV mortality
Events (n)Mortality rate*Relative risk
Events (n)Mortality rate*Relative risk
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Cystatin C–estimated GFR
    ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m22176.01.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)942.61.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
    <60 ml/min per 1.73 m216112.21.81 (1.45–2.25)1.73 (1.37–2.18)755.72.00 (1.45–2.77)1.71 (1.21–2.42)
    Per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower estimated GFR1.23 (1.15–1.30)1.22 (1.14–1.30)1.26 (1.15–1.38)1.21 (1.10–1.33)
MDRD-estimated GFR
    ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m22766.91.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1253.11.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
    <60 ml/min per 1.73 m210211.01.62 (1.28–2.04)1.54 (1.21–1.97)444.71.56 (1.10–2.22)1.36 (0.94–1.96)
    Per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower estimated GFR1.13 (1.08–1.18)1.12 (1.07–1.17)1.14 (1.06–1.22)1.11 (1.03–1.18)
Loss of cystatin C–estimated GFR§
    <3 ml/min per 1.73 m2/year2717.01.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1132.91.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
    ≥3 ml/min per 1.73 m2/year10710.41.66 (1.30–2.11)1.57 (1.22–2.01)565.52.07 (1.46–2.92)1.85 (1.29–2.65)
    Per ml/min per 1.73 m2/year decrease in estimated GFR1.07 (1.02–1.12)1.06 (1.01–1.10)1.10 (1.04–1.17)1.07 (1.01–1.13)
Urine ACR
    <30 mg/g2146.01.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)862.41.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
    ≥30 mg/g16412.01.88 (1.52–2.32)1.73 (1.39–2.17)836.12.32 (1.70–3.18)1.96 (1.40–2.73)
    Per doubling1.22 (1.15–1.30)1.18 (1.10–1.26)1.32 (1.20–1.45)1.24 (1.12–1.37)
  • *Per 100 person-years.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, and race.

  • ‡Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes duration, hypoglycemic medications, hypertension, BMI, smoking, total cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and prevalent congestive heart failure.

  • §Loss of glomerular filtration rate estimated from serum cystatin C over the 7 years preceding ascertainment of mortality. ref, referent.