Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population according to incident diabetes status in 21,984 men and women: EPIC-Norfolk Study 1993–2005

No incident diabetesIncident diabetesP
n21,259725
Demographic characteristics
    Age (years)58.0 ± 9.361.3 ± 8.3≤0.0001
    Women11,871 (55.8)312 (43.0)≤0.001
    BMI (kg/m2)26.2 ± 3.829.7 ± 4.7≤0.0001
    Waist circumference (cm)87.5 ± 12.199.4 ± 12.6≤0.0001
    Family history of diabetes2,594 (12.2)164 (22.6)≤0.001
    Smokers, current2,495 (11.8)77 (10.7)0.37
Education level≤0.001
    1 (lowest)8,187 (38.5)342 (47.2)
    22,796 (13.2)80 (11.0)
    37,452 (35.1)231 (31.9)
    4 (highest)2,808 (13.2)72 (9.9)
Physical activity≤0.001
    Inactive6,046 (28.4)306 (42.2)
    Moderately inactive6,199 (29.2)167 (23.0)
    Moderately active4,951 (23.3)136 (18.8)
    Active4,062 (19.1)116 (16.0)
Dietary characteristics
    Total energy intake (kcal/day)2,030.2 ± 579.12,054.1 ± 621.00.94
    Fat intake (g/day)77.1 ± 29.677.0 ± 29.80.94
    n-3 PUFA intake (g/day)1.5 (1.1–2.0)1.5 (1.2–2.0)0.13
    Carbohydrate intake (g/day)255.9 ± 86.8256.4 ± 82.20.89
    Fiber intake (g/day)17.6 (14.0, 21.9)16.8 (13.1, 21.6)<0.01
    Protein intake (g/day)83.2 ± 21.482.8 ± 21.50.64
    Alcohol intake (g/day)4.7 (0.8–10.9)2.8 (0–10.4)≤0.001
    Fruit and vegetable intake (g/day)451.7 (246.4)431.8 (238.1)0.02
    Plasma vitamin C (μmol/l)54.2 ± 20.143.5 ± 18.0≤0.0001
    Fish oil supplements at baseline (yes)6,530 (30.7)208 (28.7)0.24
    Multivitamin supplement use at baseline (yes)9,717 (45.7)283 (39.0)≤0.0001
Fish intake (≥1 portions/week of fish intake)
    Total fish intake18,505 (89.2)607 (86.7)0.04
    White fish intake8,850 (41.8)274 (38.0)0.04
    Oily fish intake7,645 (36.1)220 (30.5)≤0.01
    Fried fish intake5,030 (23.8)188 (26.0)0.18
    Fish fingers intake1,290 (6.1)42 (5.9)0.82
    Shellfish intake1,534 (7.2)74 (10.2)≤0.01
    Fish roe intake214 (1.0)5 (0.7)0.40
  • Data are means ±SD, n (%), or median (IQR). P values correspond to t test for continuous variables, χ2 test for categorical variables, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (for medians).