Table 1

Clinical and metabolic analyses in carriers of GCK, HNF1A, and MODY of unknown type (UT) mutations

GCKHNF1AUTP
Birth weight (g)3,050 (2,790–3,370)3,570 (2,975–4,205)3,075 (2,950–3,520)0.100
Age at 1st visit (years)7.6 ± 3.6*13.2 ± 6.210.3 ± 3.4<0.001
BMI at 1st visit17 (14–24)21 (13–25)17 (16–20)0.929
FPG (mmol/l)6.3 (5.8–6.7)6.1 (5.5–6.6)6.0 (5.6–6.4)0.099
OGTT + 120′ (mmol/l)8.37 ± 1.7710.23 ± 4.5§9.45 ± 2.520.102
FPG and OGTT outcome<0.001
    NFG and NGT3 (3)4 (31)1 (4)
    IFG or IGT100 (83)2 (15)17 (71)
    DM/DM17 (14)7 (54)6 (25)
    FPIR (pmol/l)438 (306–624)300 (240–432)570 (294–876)0.084
FPIR percentiles0.073
    <25th70 (71)7 (100)12 (52)
    25th–75th25 (26)08 (35)
    >75th3 (3)03 (13)
  • Data are median (25th–75th percentile), means ± SD, and n (%).

  • *Vs. HNF1A, UT;

  • †vs. GCK;

  • ‡vs. HNF1A;

  • §vs. GCK, UT. For post hoc comparisons: P < 0.017 (after Bonferroni correction) (GCK) vs. GCK; (HNF1A) vs. HNF1A and (X) vs. unknown. DM, diabetes mellitus; FPIR, first-phase insulin response; NFG, normal fasting glucose; NGT, normal glucose tolerance.