Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 1,407 patients according to the incidence of abnormal VPT

Progression to abnormal VPTMaintenance of normal VPTP*
No. patients3331,074
Age (years)33.4 ± 10.230.9 ± 8.8<0.0001
Duration of diabetes (years)14.8 ± 9.012.6 ± 8.1<0.0001
Male sex (%)56460.001
History of smoking (%)5642<0.0001
Height (cm)170 ± 9168 ± 90.0004
Weight (kg)70.1 ± 10.865.5 ± 10.1<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 ± 3.023.2 ± 2.6<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.85 ± 0.110.83 ± 0.100.0053
A1C (%)8.6 ± 2.08.0 ± 1.8<0.0001
Insulin dose/kg body weight (IU)0.67 ± 0.210.69 ± 0.220.1
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.45 ± 1.175.14 ± 1.02<0.0001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.48 ± 1.053.20 ± 0.910.0005
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.46 ± 0.441.52 ± 0.420.04
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.95 (0.54, 2.55)0.84 (0.48, 2.06)<0.0001
Fibrinogen (g/l)3.26 ± 0.953.15 ± 0.870.1
von Willebrand factor (units/ml)1.25 (0.64, 2.32)1.10 (0.54, 2.11)0.0005
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)117 (98, 152)116 (96, 140)0.06
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 (57, 93)73 (57, 92)0.09
Hypertension (%)2715<0.0001
History of CVD (%)1160.005
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)12.6 (3.7, 447.4)9.5 (3.2, 122.5)<0.0001
Macroalbuminuria (%)9.53.3<0.0001
Micro- or macroalbuminuria (%)3322<0.0001
Any retinopathy (%)5233<0.0001
Proliferative retinopathy (%)940.0001
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (%)39280.0001
  • Data are means ± SD or medians (5th percentile, 95th percentile) in cases of skewed distributions.

  • *P values are derived from Student's t test or from a Mann-Whitney U test in cases of skewed distributions and/or from a χ2 test in cases of percentages.

  • †The blood pressure data exclude patients who were undergoing antihypertensive therapy.