Table 2

Risk factors for the incidence of abnormal VPT after adjustment for A1C and duration of diabetes

OR (95% CI)P
Male sex (%)1.58 (1.23–2.04)0.0004
History of smoking (%)1.69 (1.31–2.18)<0.0001
Height (cm)1.40 (1.22–1.59)<0.0001
Weight (kg)1.64 (1.44–1.86)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)1.43 (1.26–1.62)<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio1.17 (1.04–1.32)0.009
Insulin dose/kg body weight (IU)0.88 (0.77–0.99)0.05
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1.22 (1.08–1.39)0.002
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.22 (1.04–1.42)0.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.90 (0.79–1.02)0.10
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.35 (1.15–1.57)0.002
von Willebrand factor (units/ml)1.27 (1.08–1.51)0.005
Hypertension (%)1.88 (1.38–2.56)<0.0001
History of CVD (%)1.62 (1.04–2.52)0.03
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)*1.29 (1.14–1.45)<0.0001
Macroalbuminuria (%)2.48 (1.47–4.19)0.0006
Micro- or macroalbuminuria (%)1.44 (1.08–1.93)0.01
Any retinopathy (%)1.88 (1.36–2.61)0.0001
Proliferative retinopathy (%)2.17 (1.22–3.86)0.008
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (%)1.58 (1.20–2.07)0.001
  • Standardized ORs are expressed per SD increase in each continuous risk factor. ORs for dichotomous variables have as a reference group those patients without the respective risk factor.

  • *Log transformation was used.