Table 3

ORs for associations between key risk factors and the incidence of abnormal VPT with the use of two logistic-regression models

VariableModel 1
Model 2
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Duration of diabetes (years)1.21 (1.03–1.43)0.021.12 (0.90–1.39)0.3
A1C (%)1.26 (1.06–1.49)0.0081.30 (1.07–1.68)0.009
History of smoking (%)1.71 (1.23–2.37)0.0011.85 (1.27–2.70)0.01
Hypertension (%)1.65 (1.08–2.50)0.021.82 (1.12–2.94)0.01
BMI (kg/m2)1.32 (1.12–1.56)0.0011.26 (1.04–1.53)0.002
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1.06 (0.88–1.27)0.60.94 (0.76–1.17)0.6
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.21 (1.01–1.45)0.041.27 (1.03–1.58)0.03
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)*1.15 (0.98–1.35)0.091.20 (1.00–1.44)0.05
History of CVD (%)2.13 (1.10–4.12)0.03
Any retinopathy (%)1.44 (0.92–2.26)0.1
  • Standardized ORs are expressed per SD increase in each continuous risk factor. ORs for dichotomous variables have as a reference group those patients without the respective risk factor. Model 1 was mutually adjusted for all other risk factors. Model 2 was mutually adjusted for all other risk factors and complications of diabetes.

  • *Log transformation was used.