Table 2

HRs for the risk of cancer in relation to low LDL cholesterol, albuminuria, and statin use

No. at riskHR (95% CI)P
Interaction models for albuminuria and low LDL cholesterol*
    Model 1
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and normoalbuminuria vs. others9611.35 (0.89–2.07)0.1603
        LDL cholesterol ≥2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others8371.40 (0.97–2.02)0.0718
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others5943.08 (2.08–4.56)<0.0001
    Model 2
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and normoalbuminuria vs. others9611.41 (0.92–2.16)0.1129
        LDL cholesterol ≥2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others8371.16 (0.78–1.74)0.4576
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others5942.59 (1.69–3.96)<0.0001
    Model 3§
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and normoalbuminuria vs. others9611.45 (0.94–2.24)0.0932
        LDL cholesterol ≥2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others8371.27 (0.85–1.90)0.2435
        LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/l and albuminuria vs. others5942.77 (1.78–4.31)<0.0001
Interaction models for copresence of LDL cholesterol <2.80 mmol/l plus albuminuria and nonuse of statins
    Model 1
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and use of statins vs. others1010.63 (0.09–4.64)0.6476
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = no and nonuse of statins vs. others3,1992.54 (1.72–3.76)<0.0001
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and nonuse of statins vs. others5946.24 (3.86–10.07)<0.0001
    Model 2
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and use of statins vs. others1010.67 (0.09–4.96)0.6942
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = no and nonuse of statins vs. others3,1992.21 (1.47–3.33)<0.0001
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and nonuse of statins vs. others5944.43 (2.72–7.21)<0.0001
    Model 3§
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and use of statins vs. others1010.64 (0.09–4.80)0.6645
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = no and nonuse of statins vs. others3,1992.31 (1.51–3.91)<0.0001
        Low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria = yes and nonuse of statins vs. others5944.81 (2.81–8.24)<0.0001
  • *The analysis was performed in 3,793 patients without use of statins.

  • †Adjusted for LDL cholesterol ≥3.80 mmol/l.

  • ‡Further adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status (current smoker plus ex-smoker), drinking status (current drinker plus ex-drinker), duration of diabetes, A1C, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, eGFR, and medications from enrollment to cancer, death, or censoring date, whichever came first. Medications include ACEIs or ARBs, oral antidiabetes drugs, insulin, fibrates and other antihypertensive drugs at enrollment.

  • §Adjusted for covariates listed in ‡, but restricted cubic spline functions were used for all the continuous covariates.

  • ‖The analysis was performed in 3,793 patients without use of statins plus 1,483 patients who used statins during follow-up.

  • ¶Stratified Cox models including deciles of propensity scores to adjust for likelihood using statins during follow-up. The propensity score was calculated using a logistic regression procedure with use of statins as the dependent variable and age, sex, BMI, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, drinking status, A1C, systolic blood pressure, log (ACR + 1), eGFR, duration of diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, retinopathy, sensory neuropathy, prior history of myocardial infarction, and stroke as independent variables (The c-statistic was 0.80).