Table 2

Pregnancy complications and mode of delivery in type 1 diabetic and control pregnancies

Outcome variableProportions (%)
OR (95% CI) for group differences
Type 1 diabetesNondiabetesCrudeAdjusted
PIH1.60.871.93 (1.50–2.49)1.53 (1.18–1.99)
Preeclampsia, mild9.72.05.37 (4.81–6.00)4.30 (3.83–4.83)
Preeclampsia, severe4.30.85.58 (4.75–6.57)4.47 (3.77–5.31)
Cesarean section46125.85 (5.49–6.25)5.31 (4.97–5.69)
Vacuum extraction/forceps9.66.61.48 (1.33–1.66)1.41 (1.25–1.58)
  • Data are proportions or OR (95% CI). n = 5,089 for diabetic pregnancies; n = 1,260,207 for control pregnancies. Adjusted OR, OR adjusted for group differences in maternal age, BMI, parity, chronic hypertensive disorder, smoking habits, and ethnicity.